The Great Wall of BRICS: Six New Members Join



In a landmark move, the top leaders of the BRICS nations on 24th of August 2023 decided to admit Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates as full members of the grouping that is largely seen as a counterweight to the Western powers. These member countries will be a part of BRICS on and from 1st of January 2024. The BRICS member nations have been the main engines of global economic growth over the years and is expected to grow further.

The decision to expand the bloc is seen as an effort to reshape global governance while putting the voices of the Global South as a key priority area to advance the overall development agenda.


Significance of adding new members: Three Clear Dimensions


Political Considerations

The nations asked to join reflect each BRICS member's ambition to sign up allies. While Egypt has strong business links with Russia and India, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva actively advocated for the admission of Argentina, the country's neighbor. The admission of oil-rich Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates shows their departure from the US and desire to become world powers. In their joint fight against US-led sanctions and diplomatic isolation, Iran and Russia have found common ground , and their economic links have grown stronger because of Moscow's invasion of Ukraine. Also, the decision to admit Iran, also looking for a way to sidestep sanctions, represented a win for Putin and Xi, helping give the group a more anti-western, non-democratic tinge. The news was also a major boost for Ethiopia, Africa’s second most populous country and one of the fastest-growing economies on the continent coming out of a two-year conflict in the country’s Tigray region . The war caused billions of dollars of damage and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, under pressure from the US and European Union, has turned to other partners like China, Russia, and Gulf nations for support.

India sees it a little differently. India is wary of the bloc becoming overtly anti-Western in orientation. One of the founding nations of the non-aligned movement during the Cold War, India has carried this legacy on amid today’s great power competition. While it is a member of the BRICS grouping and the China-Russia founded Shanghai Cooperation Organization , New Delhi's relationship with the United States has reached new heights in recent years and it is a member of the Quad (along with Japan, Australia and the United States) , a not-so-subtle effort to compete with China in the Indo-Pacific. Indeed, countering the Chinese aggression is one of the key thrust areas of US - India cooperation.

The continued dominance of the US dollar in global trade is something BRICS has vocally challenged. This is, in fact, a baby step towards becoming a platform where countries of the Global South can express their solidarity.

Economic Considerations

At present, the BRICS represents 41% of the global population, 24% of the global GDP and 16% of global trade. With the inclusion of six new members, BRICS will represent 36% of global GDP and 47% of the world population . There is a hype about de-dollarization and with new possibilities of trade , possibly, BRICS can become that world order and the first among the multilateral regimes to float a strong common currency against the dollar.

Energy Considerations

It needs to be noted that the expansion has been very energy centric. Interestingly, it appears that the bloc did consider the cost of energy goods while choosing new members, as well as how those nations may lessen their vulnerability and responsibility regarding the price of oil. Besides Russia, all [the core BRICS countries] are non-energy producing countries. They need to be able to make their economies function. Hence, this inclusion.



The current members in BRICS have struck different tones on their relationship with the West. Commercial and diplomatic tensions have risen between China and the US, while Russia is under a spate of Western sanctions for its invasion of Ukraine. India is to a certain extent stable in terms of its relationship with the West, however, Indo-China ties remain a concern within the BRICS bloc.

The problems that the new BRICS members pose are different. While Ethiopia is experiencing recent internal conflicts and fighting that has raised questions about domestic stability, Iran is coping with US sanctions over its nuclear program . Economic pressures have affected Egypt , while Argentina recently significantly depreciated its peso and increased interest rates in the wake of far-right libertarian Javier Milei's unexpected victory in the primary election . Despite persistent Western criticism of Saudi Arabia's human rights record , both the UAE and Saudi Arabia are actively pursuing growth in non-oil areas.


Summing up

BRICS is looking for incremental expansion as forty countries expressed their interest in joining the BRICS, but this does not make BRICS a Global South Front. BRICS, as of now, will remain as an eleven-member club. The inclusion of Iran in the BRICS sends a forceful message to Washington, the G7, and the Global North. But its most concrete achievement, the New Development Bank, is now struggling in the face of sanctions against founding shareholder Russia after the Russia-Ukraine war . The addition of new voices will only make it harder for the BRICS to come to terms on key issues on which the group hopes to advance, such as reducing reliance on local currencies in transactions, coming up with a common currency, and increasing their corresponding banking relationships. Finally, with the G7, G20, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation disintegrating into wrestling rings for frenzied diplomacy , it is worth giving BRICS a chance to reinvent multilateral cooperation. In the next ten years, only time will tell how powerful BRICS can become.


As already discussed, India is the only country having close ties not only with the newly invited members of BRICS (except Ethiopia ) but also is a close ally of the US. India must bring that balance between the new avatar of BRICS without upsetting the present group and at the same time keep out of its anti-West (anti-US) diatribes. It may be a tall order, but New Delhi cannot falter at this crucial juncture as it aims to take center stage in global geo-political and geo-economic dynamics.

A person wearing glasses and a suit

Description automatically generated  By:

Sovik Mukherjee

Assistant Professor in Economics

Faculty of Commerce & Management

St. Xavier’s University, Kolkata

West Bengal, INDIA.

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'kks/kkFkhZ  & jktuhfr foKku foHkkx

jktLFkku fo'ofo|ky;] t;iqj

fdlh lekt ;k ns'k dh ukjh dh fLFkfr ml lekt ;k ns'k dh lH;rk dk niZ.k gSA fdlh Hkh ns'k dk lexz fodkl efgykvksa dh Hkkxhnkjh ds fcuk ugha gks ldrk gS] D;ksafd ns'k dh tula[;k dk yxHkx vk/kk fgLlk efgyk,¡ gksrh gSaA efgykvksa dk mRFkku fdlh Hkh jk"Vª ds ekuo lalk/ku fodkl dk lokZf/kd egÙoiw.kZ Hkkx gS D;ksafd efgykvksa dh fLFkfr vkSj jk"Vªh; fodkl ds chp ,d lh/kk vkSj lqLi"V lEcU/k gSA

fdlh Hkh lekt ds lexz fodkl ds fy, lEcfU/kr efgyk oxZ dk jk"Vª ds fodkl dh eq[; /kkjk ls tqM+k gksuk ijeko';d gSA jk"Vª dh vk/kh vkcknh vFkkZr~ efgyk oxZ dk lfØ; ,oa iw.kZ lg;ksx gh lEcfU/kr lekt ds iw.kZ fodkl dh iwoZ 'krZ gSA jktuhfrd lekt ds vk/ks lnL;ksa dh lfØ; ,oa iw.kZ lgHkkfxrk ds fcuk LoLFk ,oa lq–< yksdra= dk fodkl laHko ugha gSA jkT; lHkk dh iwoZ mi&lHkkifr utek gsriqYyk ds vuqlkj jktuhfr ds çR;sd Lrj ij efgykvksa dks lkFk ysus ij gh yksdra= iw.kZ gksrk gSA uhfr ,oa fu.kZ; fuekZ.k vkSj lksp ds çR;sd Lrj ij lkFk pyus ls gh lgHkkfxrk iw.kZ gksrh gSA

jktuhfrd eqís ds :i esa ukjh l'kähdj.k dk ç'u fiNys dqN n'kdksa esa lkoZtfud eapksa ls ,d egÙoiw.kZ ç'u ds :i es gekjs le{k gSA fiNys n'kdksa esa fo'oLrj ij ;g vke lgefr mHkjh gS fd tu vkcknh ds vk/ks Hkkx efgykvksa dh lfØ; lgHkkfxrk ds fcuk larqfyr lkekftd lajpuk ,oa vFkZiw.kZ jktuhfrd ,oa vkfFkZd fodkl laHko ugha gSA1 orZeku esa yxHkx lHkh jk"Vªksa esa yksdrkaf=dj.k dh çfØ;k dks Lohdkj fd, tkus ds ckotwn Hkh orZeku ;qxhu yksdrkaf=d lekt esa vk/kh vkcknh vFkkZr efgykvksa dks tks fgLlk ,oa ntkZ feyuk pkfg,] mlls og oafpr gSA reke ç;klksa ds mijkUr Hkh efgyk fodkl ,oa efgyk l'kähdj.k dk ç'u jktuhfr] vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa lkekftd mUu;u dh eq[; /kkjk ds lkFk tqM+ ugha ik;k gSA




csxkj çFkk mUewyu dh psruk ds ç;kl


MkW- pUnzçHkk ikjhd

lg&vkpk;Z bfrgkl

Jh jruyky daojyky ikVuh

jktdh; LukrdksŸkj egkfo|ky; fd'kux<+


bf'krk ikjhd

Nk=k ,y-,y-,e-

jkt- fof/k egkfo|ky; ] vtesj



fu/kZurk dh etcwjh dk lw{e fun'kZu csxkjh

Hkw[k I;kl ls =Lr tqYe lgrh Fkh turk cspkjhA

Lo lEeku csp cU/kd cuuk Fkk mudh ykpkjh

Jfed vkSj tutkfr ] nfyr 'kksf"kr dh O;Fkk Hkkjh AA

lkfgR; lw;Z us /khjs /khjs viuh jf'e;k¡ fc[kjkbZ

QyLo:i  csxkj çFkk mUewyu dh tkxzfr vkbZ A


jktLFkku ds bfrgkl esa ,sls nqcZy] nfyr] 'kksf"kr ,oa fu%lgk;ksa dh xkFkkvksa ds vusd mnkgj.k Hkjs gSa tks csxkjh çFkk ds tcM+ksa esa tdM+s gq, FksA ;gk¡ ds LokFkkZU/k 'kkld] tkxhjnkj ,oa lwn[kksj egktu vaxzstksa dk çJ; ikdj lcy gks x, vkSj Hkwfedj ] ykxckx o csxkjh ls ncs 'kksf"kr yksx csxkjh cuus ij etcwj gks x, ] fdUrq jktLFkku esa T;ksa T;ksa f'k{kk dk çlkj gksus yxk R;ksa R;ksa csxkjh çFkk ds fo:) lekt esa tkxzfr vkus yxhA

xksfoUnfxfj] eksfryky rstkor ] ekf.kD;yky oekZ ] Hkksxhyky i.M~~;k] ckaxM+ lsok efUnj] fofHkUu fdlku vkUnksyuksa o iztke.Myksa }kjk csxkjh çFkk ds fo:) psruk tkxzr djus ds lkFk f'k{kk dk çlkj fd;k x;kA ekf.kD;yky oekZ] Hk¡ojyky Lo.kZdkj] x.ks'kyky mLrkn] t;ukjk;.k O;kl vkfn us vius xhrksa ,oa lkfgR; ds ek/;e ls bl oxZ dh n;uh; fLFkfr dk o.kZu izLrqr dj tuekul dks m}sfyr fd;k blh çdkj lekpkj i=ksa us Hkh csxkjh çFkk dh vksj lekt dk /;ku vkd``"V dj tupsruk tkxzfr dk dk;Z fd;kA

csxkjh çFkk ds fo:) vusd dkuwuh ,oa laoS/kkfud ç;kl fd;s x, ftuesa 1936 esa dok;n eqrkfYyd gkfy;ku ¼cwUnh jkT; }kjk tkjh½] jktLFkku lkxM+h vf/kfu;e 1961 o cfU/kr Je i)fr ¼mRlknu½ vf/kfu;e 1976 çHkkoh dne lkfcr gq,A dsUnz o jkT; ljdkj ,oa Lo;alsoh laxBuksa us csxkj mUewyu ds ç;klksa ds ewY;kadu gsrq vusd laxksf"B;k¡ ] ;k=k o`ŸkkUr ] losZ bR;kfn vk;ksftr fd, lkFk gh loksZPp U;k;ky; ds egRoiw.kZ fu.kZ; Hkh bl {ks= esa ehy ds iRFkj lkfcr gq,A

fdUrq nq%[kn igyw ;g Hkh gS fd vusd ç;kl o dkuwu Hkys gh csxkj çFkk ij izHkkoh jksdFkke dk nkok djs ysfdu vkt Hkh çHkko'kkyh O;fä;ksa ds Äjksa ] [ksrksa ] QSfDVª;ksa ] dkj[kkuksa ] bZaVHkV~Vksa o [knkuksa bR;kfn esa xjhc Jfed csxkjh ds :i  esa dk;Z djrs gq, fey tk,¡xsA

ekuoh; lqj{kk dks ysdj bl vUrjkZ"Vªh; eap ls 'kksf"kr o ihfM+r oxZ ds i{k esa tks vkokt mBkbZ tk jgh gS og  bl oxZ dks U;k; fnyk lds rks bl laxks"Bh dh lkFkZdrk gksxh] ,slk esjk ekuuk gSA












vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr ds vf/kdkjksa ds izfr iqfyl dh Hkwfedk


Lkhek pkS/kjh

,lksfl,V izksQslj]

xouZesUV dkWyst] cwanh] jktLFkku


tkrh; ladh.kZrk ,oa fofo/k va/kfo'okl ekuork ds fodkl ds ekxZ ij ck/kk curs vk;s gSaA le;&le; ij bu vekuoh; izFkkvksa ds fojks/k ,oa [k.Mu gsrq iqjtksj iz;kl gksrs jgs gSaA vkt vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ,oa tutkfr;ksa ds yksxksa ds ekSfyd vf/kdkjksa dk guu gks jgk gS ftldk izeq[k dkj.k vf'kf{kr gksuk gSA vkt bu tkfr;ksa esa vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#drk ykuk vko';d gSaA tkx#drk rHkh vk ldrh gS] tc muesa f'k{kk dk izpkj izlkj gks D;ksafd f'kf{kr O;fDr gh vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#d gks ldrk gSaA bu oxksZa ds vf/kdkjksa ds laj{k.k ds fy, dsUnz vkSj jkT; ljdkjksa }kjk fofo/k dkuwu cuk;s x, gSa vkSj lafo/kku }kjk Hkh fofHkUu mica/kksa ds ek/;e ls mUgsa laj{k.k fn;k x;k gSA brus dkuwuh izko/kkuksa ds gksus ij Hkh 'kksf"kr vkSj fiNMs+ oxksZ dk ;g ekuuk gS fd iqfyl muds ekuoh; fgrksa dh lnSo mis{kk gh ugha djrh oju~ Lo;a Hkh mPp oxksZ ,oa 'kkld oxZ dh HkkaWfr muds izfr nqO;Zogkj dj U;k; izkfIr dh vk'kkvksa dks /kwy&/kwlfjr djrh gSaA vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr;ksa dks muds ewyHkwr ekuo vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr djuk izR;{kr% lkekftd vU;k; gSA iqfyl }kjk bu tkfr;ksa ds lnL;ksa tks fd gekjs lekt dk vfHkUu vax gS muds ekuokf/kdkj dh j{kk lqfuf'pr u djuk vkSj mUgs lkekftd U;k; izkfIr esa lgk;rk u nsuk LoPN lekt fuekZ.k ,oa laoS/kkfud izko/kkuksa ds izfrdwy gSaA bu oxksZa ds ekuokf/kdkjksa dks lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, laoS/kkfud laLFkkvksa ds lkFk gh iqfyl dks Hkh viuh ldkjkRed Hkwfedk dk fuoZgu djuk vko';d gksxkA vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr oxksZ ds fodkl ,oa fgr laj{k.k ds fy, vkfne tkfr&vuqlwfpr tkfr dY;k.k foHkkxksa dh LFkkiuk Hkh dsUnz vkSj jkT; ljdkjksa }kjk dh xbZ gS rkfd bu oxksZa ds laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk ds lkFk buds lkekftd vkfFkZd fodkl dks lqfuf'pr fd;k tk ldsA



vk; vkSj laifÙk çdVhdj.k ç.kkyh& tokcnsgh ds ek/;e ls lq'kklu dh LFkkiuk


chuk 'kekZ

,lksfl,V izksQslj

fMikVZesUV vkWQ ,0ch0,l0Vh0

xouZesUV dkWfyt] MqXxw


foÙkh; ?kks"k.kk,a ;k vk; vkSj laifÙk çdVhdj.k ¼vkbZ,Mh½ Hkz"Vkpkj fojks/kh ,tsafl;ksa vkSj ljdkjksa ds fy, Hkz"Vkpkj ls yM+us ds fy, ,d egRoiw.kZ midj.k cu jgs gSaA vk; vkSj laifÙk ?kks"k.kk ç.kkyh Hkz"Vkpkj dks jksdus vkSj lkoZtfud laifÙk dh pksjh dk irk yxkus ds fy, ,d 'kfä'kkyh midj.k gks ldrh gSA

gesa bu ç.kkfy;ksa dks cukus ds dkj.k dks dHkh ugha Hkwyuk pkfg,A ,d lexz Hkz"Vkpkj fojks/kh j.kuhfr ds fgLls ds :i esa] os ;g lqfuf'pr djus esa enn djrs gSa fd nqyZHk lalk/kuksa dks bZekunkjh vkSj le>nkjh ls [kpZ fd;k tkrk gSA bl rjg] ge ukxfjdksa dks LokLF; ns[kHkky] f'k{kk] lM+dsa vkSj thou dh xq.koÙkk çkIr djus esa enn djrs gSa ftlds fy, mUgksaus Hkqxrku fd;k gS vkSj blds yk;d gSaAvkSj lq'kklu ij ;g /;ku le`f) vkSj fLFkjrk ds fy, ,d etcwr uhao ds :i esa dk;Z djrk gSA

vkbZ-,-Mh- ç.kkfy;k¡ lq'kklu ds O;kid <kaps ds Hkhrj nks egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk,¡ fuHkk ldrh gSa% jksdFkke vkSj çorZuA

,d vkbZ,Mh ç.kkyh dks loksZÙke rjhds ls fMtkbu vkSj dk;kZfUor djus ds rjhds dks [kkstus ds ç;kl esa] fd, x, fo'ys"k.k ls irk pyrk gS fd ns'kksa dks varr% ,d ,slh ç.kkyh rS;kj djuh pkfg, tks ml okrkoj.k dks loksZÙke :i ls iwjd djs ftlesa ;g dk;Z lQyrk dh ck/kkvksa dks lq/kkjus ds fy, Qkbyjksa dh la[;k dks lhfer djsa] ekewyh vkSj çkIr djus ;ksX; vis{kk,a fu/kkZfjr djsa] tukns'k ds vuq:i lalk/ku çnku djsa] vkSj miyC/k lalk/kuksa ds lkFk lajsf[kr djus ds fy, lR;kiu çfØ;kvksa dks çkFkfedrk nsaA ] vkSj ?kks"k.kkvksa rd lkoZtfud igqap ds lkFk xksiuh;rk laca/kh fparkvksa dks larqfyr djsa A




efgyk lqj{kk % ljdkj vkSj lekt


M‚- eSuk fuokZ.k

lg vkpk;Z] jktuhfr foKku]

jkt- Mwaxj egkfo|ky;]

chdkusj ¼jkt-½


efgyk eqík] ekuo bfrgkl ds lcls çkphu rFkk orZeku ds lcls Toyr eqíksa esa ls ,dA ;g u dsoy lkoZdkfyd] lkoZnsf'kd oju loZlkekftd Hkh gSA vkt nqfu;k¡ dk dksbZ dksuk ,slk ugha gS tks efgykvksa ds fy;s lqjf{kr gksA ns'k pkgs fodflr gks ;k fodkl'khy] efgykvksa dh fLFkfr dekscs'k ,d tSlh gh gSA vesfjdk Hkh fo'o esa efgykvksa ds fy, vlqjf{kr ns'kksa dh esa nlosa LFkku ij gSA dksjksuk dky esa efgyk fgalk ds ekeyksa esa vçR;kf'kr o`f) gqbZ gSA

efgykvksa dks vusdkusd d"V o vU;k; ek= bl dkj.k >syus iM+rs gS D;ksafd os efgyk gSA buds dkj.k efgykvksa dks feys lHkh ikfjokfjd] lkekftd] vkfFkZd o jktuhfrd vf/kdkj csekuh gks tkrs gSA ;s lh/ks lh/ks efgykvksa ds lekurk o LorU=rk ;k ;w¡ dgsa fd efgykvksa ds ekuokf/kdkjksa dk guu gSA

efgykvksa ds f[kykQ gksus okyh fgalk dk lcls cM+k dkj.k fir` lÙkkRed O;oLFkk o efgykvksa ds çfr ladh.kZ lksp gSA ftlds dkj.k efgyk ekuork ds ntsZ ls fxjdj nks;e ntsZ ij igqap x;h gSA vkt fxjrs uSfrd ewY;ksa c<+rs rduhdh fodkl rFkk miHkksäkoknh laL—fr us efgyk dks miHkksX; oLrq ¼Commodity ½ ds :i esa çLrqr fd;k gSA ftlds QyLo:i efgyk,a igys ls T;knk vlqjf{kr gqbZ gSA dgha u dgha blds ihNs efgykvksa }kjk dh tk jgh LorU=rk dk miHkksx vkSj lekurk dh ekax Hkh ,d cM+k dkj.k gSA ftls 'kk;n iq#"kksa dk ,d oxZ vius fo'ks"kkf/kdkjksa ds Nhuus ;k dVkSrh ds :i esa ns[krk gSA ,d efgyk ds lkFk vijkf/kd —R; djds ;s vU; efgykvksa dks psrkouh nsus dk ç;kl djrs gSaA ftlds QyLo:i efgykvksa dh lqj{kk [krjs esa iM+h gS vkSj efgykvksa ds f[kykQ fgalk ds ekeys c<+s gSA




fd'kux<+ dh dyk ds fodkl esa ç'kklu dh Hkwfedk


egs'k dqekj dqekor

'kks/kkFkhZ fp=dyk

egf"kZ n;kuan fo'ofo|ky; vtesj


fd'kux<+ jkT; dh LFkkiuk tks/kiqj ds jkBkSM+ jktk mn;flag ds vkB iq=ksa esa ls ,d fd'kuflag us 1609 bZ esa clariapeh ds fnu lsFkksayko ds 'kkld jko nw/kk dks ijkftr dj —".kx<+ ds uke ls fd'kux<+ dh LFkkiuk dh A fd'kux<+ 'kSyh ds fo"k; Jxkfjad i{k fy;s gq, gS |çkphu le; esa fd'kux<+ 'kSyh dks mR—"Vrk çnku djus esa fd'kux<+ ds 'kkldksa dk cgqr cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gS | mUgksaus mPp dksfV ds dykdkjksa dks ckgj ls cqyk;k vkSj bls cgqr vkxs ys tkus dk ç;kl fd;k | orZeku esa yqIr gksrh bl 'kSyh dks laj{k.k uk feyus ls dykdkjksa esa dk;Z ds çfr og yxu ugha gS |orZeku esa fd'kux<+ dh 'kq) 'kSyh dk fuokZg gksuk vR;ar dfBu dk;Z gS | gkyk¡fd fd'kux<+ esa cgqr ls fp=dkj fp=dyk ls O;kolkf;d :i ls tqM+s gq, gS fdUrq mues O;kolkf;d ekU;rk dks ysdj iwfrZ djuk gh mudk eq[; mís'; gS blfy;s fd'kux<+ dh ikjaifjd 'kSyh dh 'kqírk dks orZeku esa ewyHkwr Lo:i esa çLrqr djus dks dksbZ dykdkj mRlqd ugh gS] ,d nks dykdkj gh ,sls gS tks fd'kux<+ dh 'kq) 'kSyh dks çLrqr djus esa l{ke gS] fdUrq mUgsa ç'kklu }kjk fdlh çdkj dk laj{k.k çkIr ugha gS ftlls bl fo/kk dks cpk;k tk lds A




cqtqxksZa dh lqj{kk vkSj 'kklu


MkW- uwjtgka

lg&vkpk;Z ¼jktuhfr&foKku½

egkjkuh lqn'kZu egkfo|ky;]

chdkusj ¼jktLFkku½


ekuo izd`fr dh lcls lqUnj d`fr gS vkSj ekuo esa fo|eku foosd rÙo mls txr esa lcls Js"B cukrk gSA tc ls ekuo lH;rk dh LFkkiuk i`Foh ij gqbZ gS rc ls vkt rd fofHkUu dky[k.Mksa esa euq"; us vius dk;ksZa ls fodkl dk bfrgkl gS rFkk orZeku dks csgrj cukus dk iz;kl djrs gq, Hkfo"; dks lokjus ds iz;kl fd;s x;s gSaA bu iz;klksa ds ckotwn fo'o Lrj ij vusdksa ,sls ledkyhu eqís gSa ftUgksaus ekuo tkfr esa ekuo lqj{kk ds Hkko dks lqjf{kr djus rFkk ekuo lqj{kk ls lEcfU/kr vkSj iz;klksa dh vksj fo'o dk /;ku dsfUnzr fd;k gSA og fo"k; gS efgykvksa dk fxjrk fyaxkuqikr] ckyJe] efgykvksa ij vR;kpkj] ekuokf/kdkjksa dk guu] i;kZoj.k] lkekftd lqj{kk rFkk ekuo lqj{kk vkfnA

ekuo lqj{kk ,d cgqvk;keh 'kCn gSA blesa vusdksa fo"k; ,oa eqís tqM+s gSaA izLrqr 'kks/k i= ds ek/;e ls cqtqxksZa dh lqj{kk rFkk 'kklu ls lEcfU/kr rF;ksa dks mtkxj fd;k tk,xkA 'kks/k i= ds ek/;e ls Hkkjr esa cqtqxZ oxZ dh tula[;k dh ifjp;kRed fLFkfr;ksa dks crkrs gq, vkS|ksxhdj.k] 'kgjhdj.k] iyk;u ds dkj.k la;qDr ifjokjksa dh lekfIr us cqtqxksZa dh n;uh; fLFkfr esa c<+ksrjh dh gSA 'kklu O;oLFkk }kjk bl oxZ ds fy, dh tkus okyh fofHkUu ;kstukvksa dk izLrqrhdj.k fd;k tk,xk rFkk fofHkUu Lrj dh leL;kvksa ds lek/kku rFkk fu"d"kZ dks izLrqr djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk,xkA



Hkkjr esa efgyk ekuokf/kdkj % orZeku ifjçs{; esa ,d v/;;u


M‚- feÙky

lg vkpk;Z] jktuhfr foKku foHkkx

ckcw 'kksHkkjke jktdh; dyk egkfo|ky;] vyoj


lEiw.kZ fo'o esa ekSfyd vf/kdkjksa ,oa ekuo vf/kdkjksa dh Loh—fr esa gh efgykvksa ds ekuo vf/kdkj Hkh lekfgr gSaA efgyk dks oks lHkh ekuokf/kdkj çkIr gSa tks ,d ukxfjd gksus ds ukrs feyrs gSaA folaxfr rc iSnk gksrh gS tc laLFkkxr vk/kkj ij ugha vfirq O;ogkfjd vk/kkj ij lkekftd] jktuhfrd ,oa vkfFkZd {ks=ksa esa bu vf/kdkjksa dk ç;ksx djrs le; efgyk dks HksnHkko iw.kZ ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA;|fi efgyk iq#"k ls çk—frd :i ls fHkUu gS fdarq bl fHkUurk dks vlekurk esa ç—fr us ugha vfirq lkekftd lajpukvksa us fd;k gS vr% ;g vlekurk] vf/kdkjghurk] vU;k; dh fLFkfr ifjorZuh; gS] ;fn bldh mfpr O;k[;k ,oa çfrjks/k fd;k tk,A






efgyk lqj{kk] ekuo lqj{kk ds lanHkZ esa ,d foe'kZ


M‚- jtuh pkScs

lgk;d çksQslj

jktuhfr foKku foHkkx vk;Z efgyk ihth d‚yst okjk.klh

cukjl fganw fo'ofo|ky; ls lac)


efgyk lqj{kk ,d ,slk fo"k; gS tks ges'kk ls çklafxd vkSj lehphu jgk gSA fdlh Hkh ns'k ds fy, ;g cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ eqík jgk gSA blls tqM+s brus egRoiw.kZ vk;ke gksrs gSa tks fdlh Hkh lekt ds fy, jh<+ dk dke djrs gSaA tSls L=h f'k{kk efgyk l'kfädj.k bR;kfn lkekftd ifjis{k esa L=h dh fLFkfr dks çfrLFkkfir djrs gSaA tks fdlh Hkh lekt] jk"Vª ;k O;fä ds fodkl dh /kqjh gksrh gSA vFkkZr ukjh lqjf{kr rks fodflr jk"Vª ]lqjf{kr jk"Vª dh ladYiuk lkdkj gksrh gSA efgykvksa ds egRo dks 'kCnksa esa of.kZr rks dnkfi ugha fd;k tk ldrkA og rRdky] ledky] vkSj ns'k dky ls fujis{k ugha gksrhA ySafxd lekurk Hkh efgyk lqj{kk ls tqM+k ,d egRoiw.kZ vk;ke gSA vkt lHkh txg yxHkx yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk gSA L=h iq#"k dks dkuwuh lekurk çkIr gSA dksbZ HksnHkko ugha gS] ij ;g tehuh gdhdr ugha gSA vkt vf/kdka'k fL=;ka iq#"kksa ij fdlh u fdlh :i esa vkfJr gh gSA pkgs og firk dk Lo:i gks] ifr dk] HkkbZ dk] ;k csVs dkA ij ;g dguk drbZ vfr'k;ksfä ugha gksxk fd efgyk lqj{kk ds fcuk lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd dksbZ Hkh fodkl dnkfi laHko ugha gSA fiNys dqN le; ls rks ldkjkRed cnyko t:j ns[kus dks feys gSa ij og dkQh ugha gSA rHkh rks gesa efgyk lqj{kk dh ckr djus dh vko';drk iM+ jgh gSA dHkh lekt esa iq#"k lqj{kk dh ckr D;ksa ugha dh tkrh\ mls gj rjhds dh Lora=rk D;ksa çkIr gS\ vkSj tc rd efgykvksa ds ekeys esa ;g ugha gksxk rc rd mudh fLFkfr nks;e ntsZ dh gh jgsxhA D;ksafd vkt Hkh efgykvksa ds fy, nsg lkSan;Z dks gh çeq[krk nh tkrh gSA mls ges'kk miHkksx dh gh oLrq le>k x;k gSA ges'kk mUgha dks ,glkl djk;k x;k fd iq#"kksa dh cjkcj uk rks vki 'kkjhfjd ;k ekufld :i ls gS uk mudh rjg eukscy gSa gj fLFkfr esa vki detksj gSaA ;gka rd dh efgykvksa dks cpiu ls Hkh ;gh fl[kk;k tkrk gS vkRej{kk ds fy, Hkh vkidks iqj"kksa ij gh fuHkZj jguk gS ekuo lqj{kk dh ladYiuk vFkkZr fdlh Hkh O;fä ds fy, vkn'kZ vkSj vPNs thou dh dYiukA ekuo lqj{kk dks ysdj egkRek xka/kh th dk Hkh –f"Vdks.k Fkk fd ekuo dks viuh ekuork dHkh ugha [kksuh pkfg,A ekuo lqj{kk dk –f"Vdks.k O;fä gS vkSj O;fä dh ifjf/k esa iq:"k vkSj efgyk nksuks 'kkfey gS çk—frd :i ls nksuks esa vf/kdkjksa vkSj lqj{kk dks ysdj lkE;rk gS ijarq HkkSfrd txr esa efgyk nks;e ntsZij gS blfy, ekuo lqj{kk ds lanHkZ esa ukjh lqj{kk cgr vge eqík gSA blfy, dg ldrs gSa fd ekuo lqj{kk ds varxZr efgyk lj{kk ,d O;kid vo/kkj.kk gSA ftlds varxZr efgyk lqj{kk ds leLr igyw blesa lekfgr gSa tSls vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd ]lkekftd euksoSKkfud vkSj i;;A efgyk lqj{kk Hkh ekuo lqj{kk dh ladYiuk ds ifjçs{; esa bl rjg ls ifjHkkf"kr gksrh gS fd ekuo Hk; jfgr gks vkSj mls vHkko Hkh uk gksA ge O;fäxr :i ls fdrus lqjf{kr ,oa Lora= gSa ekuo lqj{kk ds lanHkZ esa efgyk lqj{kk lEcfU/kr foe'kZ esa ;g eq[; ç'u gSA blfy, dgk tk ldrk gS fd lqj{kk ,d fLFkfr gh ugha ,d çfØ;k Hkh gS tks fujarj pyrh jgrh gSA çLrqr vkys[k esa efgyk lqj{kk ds fofHkUu vk;keksa ;Fkk lekftd] dkuwuh euksoSKkfud ,oa jktuhfrd ifjçs{;ksa dks fo'ysf"kr djus dk ç;kl fd;k tk,xk




ehfM;k vkSj yksdra= ds chp ikjLikfjd laca/k % ,d v/;;u


nhfidk of'k"B  

'kks/kkFkhZ & jktuhfr foKku

jkt_f"k Hkr`Zgfj eRL; fo'ofo|ky;] vyoj


fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk ,oa U;k;ikfydk ds lkFk ehfM;k uked pkSFkk LrEHk blfy, Hkh csgn egÙoiw.kZ gS fd ehfM;k gh vke tu ds fgrksa dks loksZifj j[krs gq, t:jr iM+us ij çk;% mldh vkokt curk gS D;ksafd ehfM;k ds varxZr lekpkjksa dk ys[ku vkSj çlkj.k gh ugha gksrk cfYd tuer dk cgqr ls Lrjksa ij fuekZ.k Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA

LoLFk i=dkfjrk ds tfj, dHkh ns'k dks vktknh feyh Fkh rks cgqr ls Lrjksa ij tu eqíksa dk loZO;kihdj.k Hkh gqvk vkSj vHkh Hkh gksrk vk jgk gSA ehfM;k dh bUgha ldkjkRed Hkwfedkvksa ds dkj.k yksdra= esa pkSFks LraHk ds :i esa Lohdkj fd;k x;k gSA blesa ehfM;k dh [;kfr çkIr ltx çgjh vkSj okp M‚x dh Hkwfedk Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA




Ekkuo lqj{kk ,ao lq'kklu


MkW- bZ'oj panz 'kekZ

lgk;d vkpk;Z

¼jktuhfr foKku½

jktdh; egkfo|ky;] jksgV] ¼ikyh½


euq”; ,d lkekftd gS] vjLrq ds 'kCnksa es tks lekt esa ugha jgrk og ;k rks nsork gS ;k i'kq A ekuo u dsoy lkekftd gS vfirq og rks jktuhfrd Hkh gS A jkT; eas jgdj gh euq"; viuk lokZxha.k fodkl dj ldrk gSA jkT; ekuo dks og leLr ifjfLFkfr;ka miyC/k djokrk gS] ftuesa jgdj euq"; vius O;kfDrRo dk iw.kZ fodkl djrk gS vkSj vUrfuZfgr 'kkfDr;ksa dks izLQqfVr djrk gS A ekuo dks jkT; }kjk miyC/k djokbZ tkus okyh bu ifjfLFkfr;ks esa lqj{kk lcls egRoiwoZ rRo gS A ;fn ekuo jkT; esa Lo;a dks lqjf{kr eglwl djrk gS] rHkh og Loa; dk fodkl dj ldrk gS vkSj jkT; ds fodkl esa viuk ;ksxnku ns ldrk gSA ekuo dh lqj{kk ds fy, lq'kklu vfuok;Z 'krZ gS] lkFk gh lq'kklu dh LFkkiuk gsrq ekuo dh lqj{kk dk lqfuf'pr fd;k tkuk Hkh t:jh gSSA eS vius bl 'kks/k i= es ;g crkus dh dksf'k'k d:axk fd ekuo lqj{kk ,oa lq'kklu dk ijLij lEcU/k D;k gS vkSj nksuks ,d nwljs dks dSls izHkkfor djrs gSA

jkT; dk lq'kklu ekuo dh izkd`frd vkinkvkas ls] fgalk ls] vkradokn ls] Hkw[k ls] Hk; ls] dqiks"k.k ls] iks"k.k ls :f<;ksa ls] fcekfj;ksa ls] egkekfj;ksaa ls] lqj{kk iznku djrk gS A lq'kklu dk vHkko ekuo ds thou dks vlqjf{kr cukrk gS A 

vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr ds vf/kdkjksa ds izfr iqfyl dh Hkwfedk

& lhek pkS/kjh

tkrh; ladh.kZrk ,oa fofo/k va/kfo'okl ekuork ds fodkl ds ekxZ ij ck/kk curs vk;s gSaA le;&le; ij bu vekuoh; izFkkvksa ds fojks/k ,oa [k.Mu gsrq iqjtksj iz;kl gksrs jgs gSaA vkt vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ,oa tutkfr;ksa ds yksxksa ds ekSfyd vf/kdkjksa dk guu gks jgk gS ftldk izeq[k dkj.k vf'kf{kr gksuk gSA vkt bu tkfr;ksa esa vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#drk ykuk vko';d gSaA tkx#drk rHkh vk ldrh gS] tc muesa f'k{kk dk izpkj izlkj gks D;ksafd f'kf{kr O;fDr gh vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#d gks ldrk gSaA

lalkj ds lkjs fu;e] dkuwu] lafo/kku] laLdkj vFkok ijEijk,aW ekuo vf/kdkjksa ds laj{k.k ds iz;kl ds fy, ,oa muds guu dks jksdus ds fy, gh cuk;s x;s gSaA ts-bZ-,l QkWlsV ds vuqlkj ekuo vf/kdkj dHkh&dHkh ekSfyd vf/kdkj ;k ewy vf/kdkj ;k izkd`frd vf/kdkjksa ds uke ls iqdkjs tkrs gSaA ekSfyd vf/kdkj os vf/kdkj gSa ftudksa fdlh O;oLFkkfidk }kjk Nhuk ugha tk ldrk gSA izkd`frd vf/kdkj iq:"k rFkk ukjh nksuksa ls lEcfU/kr gSaA Hkkjrh; lanHkZ esa ekuo vf/kdkj lasVk;uk ds 'kCnksa esa Þeuq"; esa mPp vkSj egku thou thus dh cgqr HkkoukRed {kerk gS] vko';drk flQZ bl ckr dh gS fd os ,d&nwljs dks blds fy;s volj nsaAÞ ekuo tkfr ds lkekU; mís';ksa dh izkfIr ds fy, gh la;qDr jk"Vª egklHkk }kjk 10 fnlacj 1948 dks ekuo vf/kdkjksa dh fo'oO;kih ?kks"k.kk dh xbZA ekuo vf/kdkjksa dh ?kks"k.kk dk eq[; m}s'; euq"; dks eu ds :i esa lEeku iznku djuk gSA gekjk lafo/kku fufgr #i ls ;g mEehn j[krk gS fd ljdkj lHkh detksj oxksZa] ftlesa efgyk,aW Hkh lfEefyr gS] fd fLFkfr lq/kkjusa ds fy, fo'ks"k iz;Ru djsxhA

lfn;ksa ls in~nfyr vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr ds yksx vius nSfud thou esa u dsoy xgu vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd o 'kS{kf.kd leL;kvksa ls xzflr gSa] oju~ lkekftd {ks= esa Hkh fodV ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk izfrfnu lkeuk djrs jgrs gSaA mudk thou vUrfj{k esa fLFkr CySd gksy ;k ?kqIi va/ksjh xqQk ds leku gSA vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr ds yksx fcuk fdlh xyrh ds yEch dkykof/k ls vekuoh; Lrj dk thou th jgs gSA ;s leL;k;sa o"kksZ ls fLFkfr dks vkSj fodV cuk;s gq, gS vkSj HkkX;ghu vuqlwfpr tkfr@tutkfr;ksa dks iw.kZr% mRihfM+r  vkSj nklrk dk thou thus dks ck/; fd;s gq;s gSaA Hkkjrh; lekt ds lanHkZ esa fd;k x;k dksbZ Hkh v/;;u tkfr dks lfEefyr fd;s fcuk iw.kZ ugha dgk tk ldrkA vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd] 'kS{kf.kd vkSj lkekftd o lakLd`frd xfrfof/k;kaW ÞtkfrÞ ds pkjksa vksj /kwerh gSaA Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k {ks= dh lajpuk vkSj lEcU/k vkt Hkh Lora=rk iwoZ fLFkfr esa ;Fkkor py jgk gS] ;|fi 'kgjh {kS=ksa esa bl lanHkZ esa dqN ifjorZu n`f"Vxkspj gksus yxs gSA1 

lEiw.kZ ns'k esa vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr;ksa dks tkrh; O;oLFkk esa fuEu fLFkfr izkIr gSA vleku lEcU/kksa dh bl O;oLFkk esa vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr;ksa vkSj fiNMs+ oxZ fuEure LFkku ij gSa tcfd leqnk; esa vU; nwljh tkfr;kW mPp lkekftd fLFkfr okyh gSA blds vykok buesa Lo;a vkil esa Hkh Lrjhdj.k vkSj in fLFkfr vkfn dh vlekurk ik;h tkrh gSA2 fdlh Hkh tkfr vFkok O;fDr fo'ks"k dk ijkfJr vFkok ijk/khu gksuk mlds 'kks"k.k] mRihMu ,oa vR;kpkj dh lcls izcy fu'kkuh Lohdkj dh x;h gSA tc Hkh dksbZ O;fDr fdlh ds Qans esa Qal tkrk gS rks mlls mldh eqfDr lgt ugha gks ikrh gSA bfrgkl xokg gS fd iwoZorhZ 'kkld vaxzstksa us Hkh Hkkjrh; lekt esa O;kIr vU/kfo'oklksa] #f<+;ksa] dqjhfr;ksa ,oa tkrh; HksnHkko dk vius fgr esa iz;ksx fd;kA3 vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr;ksa ls lEcfU/kr vk;ksx }kjk le;&le; ij lq/kkjkRed mik; lq>k;s tkrs jgsa gS ftlds vuqlkj laoS/kkfud izko/kkuksa ds vUrxZr iznÙk lqfo/kkvksa dks o"kZ 1990 rd c<+k;k x;k vkSj foxr ljdkjksa us bl vof/k esa vkSj o`f) dj nh gSA bruk lc dqN gksrs gq, Hkh vuqlwfpr tkfr vkSj tutkfr;ksa dh n'kk esa dksbZ mYys[kuh; lq/kkj ugha gqvk gSaA

xouZesaV vkWQ bf.M;k ,DV 1935 esa loZizFke Þ'kSM~;wydkLVÞ 'kCn iz;qDr fd;k x;kA o"kZ 1936 esa xouZesV vkQ bf.M;k ¼'kSM~;wydkLV½ vkns'k esa dqN izko/kkuksa esa fof'k"V tkfr;ksa dks vuqlwfpr tkfr dgdj iqdkjk x;kA igys vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa dks lkekU;r% vLi`'; oxZ ds #i esa tkuk tkrk FkkA rRdkyhu Hkkjr ds tula[;k vk;qDr MkW- g~;wju us O;ofLFkr #i ls vLi`'; oxksZ dks oxhZd`r fd;k vkSj 'kklukns'k 1936 ds vUrxZr vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa dh ,d lwph tkjh dhA tutkfr;ksa ds ekeyksa esa Hkh mudks oxhZd`r djus gsrq 1931 dh tux.kuk esa izFke ckj xEHkhj dne mBk;k x;kA xouZesaV vkQ bf.M;k vkns'k 1936 dh vBkjgoha vuqlwph esa dqN tutkfr;ksa dks dqN jkT;ksa esa fiNMk oxhZd`r fd;k x;k FkkA4 lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 341 o 342 ds izko/kkuksa ds vuqlkj jk"Vªifr }kjk vuqlwfpr tkfr@ tutkfr;ksa dh lwph izdk'ku gsrq vkns'k tkjh fd, x, tks fuEuor gSa%5

1- fn dkULVhV~;w'ku ¼'kS- dkLV@'kS-Vªkbc½ vkMZj] 1950

2- laoS/kkfud ¼vuq-tkfr@vuq-tutkfr½ vkns'k 1951

3- laoS/kkfud ¼tEew ,oa d'ehj½ vuq- tkfr vkns'k 1956

4- laoS/kkfud ¼v.Meku ,oa fudksckj½ vuq- tkfr vkns'k 1959

5- laoS/kkfud ¼nknj ,oa uxj gosyh½ vuq-tkfr@tutkfr vkns'k 1962

6- laoS/kkfud ¼ikf.Mpsjh½ vuq-tkfr vkns'k 1964

7- laoS/kkfud ¼vuq- tutkfr½ mÙkj izns'k vkns'k 1967

8- laoS/kkfud ¼ xksok] neu ,oa }hi½ vuq-tkfr vkns'k 1968

lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 341 o 342 ds vUrxZr ftu tkfr;ksa dks vuqlwfpr tkfr@ tutkfr ds #i esa oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gSa muesa fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA vuq- 341 ¼2½ ,oa 342 ¼3½ ds vuqlkj ek= laln gh buesa la'kks/ku esa l{ke gSA ijUrq 1961 esa yksdj lfefr dh laLrqfr;ksa vkSj fofHkUu jkT;ksa ds erkuqlkj eaf=;ksa] vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr;ksa ds laln lnL;ksa vkSj lekt oSKkfudksa dh laLrqfr;ksa ij ,d fcy laln esa izLrqr fd;k x;k ftlesa vU; tkfr;ksa dks bl esa j[kus vFkok gVkus dk izko/kku fd;k x;k gSA

Hkkjr ljdkj ds vf/kfu;e 1935 ds }kjk lkekftd] vkfFkZd rFkk 'kS{kf.kd #i ls fiNM+s yksxksa ds fuf'pr lewgksa ds fiNMsiu ds dkj.kksa dks [kkstk x;k A lkekftd  vkfFkZd #i ls fiNMsiu dks fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy;s ftUgsa vk/kkj cuk;k x;k os fuEu izdkj Fks %&6

1-   lkekftd lajpuk vkSj lkekftd laxBu dh tkfr O;oLFkk esa fuEu fLFkfr dks izkIr fgUnw lekt dh tkfr;kaA

2-   leqnk; ds cgqla[; yksxksa esa lkekU; f'k{kk ds fodkl dh deh gksukA

3-   ljdkjh lsokvksa esa tkfr ds izfrfuf/kRo dh vlekurkA

4-   O;kikj] O;oLkk; vkSj m|ksx ds {ks= esa vi;kZIr izfrfuf/kRo gksukA

5-   mDr tkfr;ksa dk 'ks"k leqnk; ls lkekftd vkSj 'kkjhfjd vyxko ls ihfM+r gksukA

vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa dh rjg vuqlwfpr tutkfr;ksa ij ;|fi vLi`';rk vkfn fu;kZsX;rk;sa fgUnw lekt }kjk ugha Fkksih xbZ gSa ijUrq muds xjhc rFkk vf'kf{kr ,oa ouoklh gksus ds QyLo#i vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa dh HkkWafr gh muds izfr Hkh fgUnw lekt dh mPp tkfr;ksa }kjk nqO;ZOgkj] ”kks"k.k ,oa mRihM+u fd;k tkrk jgk gSaA fgUnw lkekftd O;oLFkk ij lq/kkjkRed vkUnksyuksa dk bl lUnHkZ esa dksbZ O;kid izHkko ugha iM+k gSA

Lora=rk mijkUr vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr;ka Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds fuekZ.k esa eq[; dsUnz fcUnq jghaA gekjs lafo/kku esa muls lEcfU/kr vusdksa izko/kku&vLi`';rk fuokj.k] dk;Zikfydkvksa esa vkj{k.k dh lqfo/kk] ljdkjh lsokvksa esa vkj{k.k rFkk vU; ekeyksa esa muds izfr i{kikr A ,slh tkx`fr us okLro esa vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa@ tutkfr;ksa esa vkRe psruk tkx`r dh vkSj lEeku dh Hkkouk mRiUu dhA7 vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr;ksa rFkk fiNM+s oxksZ dh n'kkvksa esa lq/kkj ykus gsrq laoS/kkfud mik;ksa ds vfrfjDr Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk Lora=rk izkfIr ls vc rd nks vk;ksx xfBr fd;s tk pqds gS] izFke fiNMk oxZ vk;ksx izfl) xka/kh oknh usrk dkdk lkgc dsydj dh v/;{krk esa 29 tuojh 1953 dks xfBr gqvk] ftlus viuh fjiksVZ 29 ekpZ 1955 dks izLrqr dh8 vkSj nwljk fiNM+k oxZ vk;ksx Jh ch-ih- e.My dh v/;{krk esa 20 fnlEcj 1978 dks xfBr fd;k x;k Fkk] tks fd e.My vk;ksx ds uke ls izfl) gqvk vkSj ftlus viuh fjiksVZ 31 fnlEcj 1980 dks Hkkjr ljdkj dks izLrqr dh FkhA9 blds vfrfjDr o"kZ 1968 esa vkU/kz izns'k es Jh euksgj izlkn dh v/;{krk esa] 1971 esa Jh eqaxsjh yky dh v/;{krk esa fcgkj esa] o"kZ 1972 esa Jh ,-vkj- c['kh dh v/;{krk esa xqtjkr izns'k esa] 1967 esa Jh xtsUnz xMdj dh v/;{krk esa tEew d'ehj esa] tuojh 1960 esa MkaW-vkj- uaxyk xksoM+k dh v/;{krk esa dsjy izns'k esa] uoEcj 1961 esa Jh ch-Mh- ns'keq[k dh v/;{krk esa egkjk"Vª izns'k esa] 1965 esa Jh o`"kHkku dh v/;{krk esa iatkc esa] 1969 esa Jh ,- ,u- l=kuk'ku dh v/;{krk esa rfeyukMq vkfn jkT;ksa esa fiNMh tkfr;ksa dks vkj{k.k vkfn lqfo/kk iznku djus ds lEcU/k esa lfefr;kaW xfBr dh x;h vkSj mUgksus vius&vius izns'k dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqlkj vuqlwfpr tkfr@tu&tkfr;ksa ds mRFkku gsrq viuh izns'kh; ljdkjksa dks fjiksVZ izLrqr dhA

vuqlwfpr tkfr@tutkfr;ksa ds fgrksa dh j{kkFkZ HksnHkko dh lekfIr ,oa muds izfr lkekftd nqHkkZouk dh lekfIr esa iqfyl dgkaW rd lgk;d] fu"i{k ,oa mfpr Hkwfedk dk fuoZgu dj jgh gSaA blds fy, fuEu i{kksa ij izdk'k Mkyk tkuk mfpr izrhr gksrk gS%&

vLi`';rk%& Hkkjr esa lfn;ksa ls lo.kksZ }kjk fuEu tkfr;ksa dks vNwr le>k tkrk jgk gSA Lora=rk mijkUr Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa ekuo fufeZr bl fu;ksZX;rk dks nwj djus dh O;oLFkk dh x;h gSaA ijUrq bl lEcU/k esa O;kid jksdFkke gsrq o"kZ 1955 esa ,d vf/kfu;e ikfjr fd;k x;k ftldk uke gS& ukxfjd vf/kdkj laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1955A blds vUrxZr ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa dk vFkZ Li"V djrs gq;s dgk x;k gS os vf/kdkj tks lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 17 ds }kjk vLi`';rk dks lekIr dj nsus ds dkj.k izR;sd O;fDr dks izkIr gS] ;Fkk%& /kkfeZd] lkekftd] LokLF;] oLrq fodz; o lsok iznku vkfnA vLi`';rk fuokj.k ls tfur vf/kdkj ds mi;ksx esa ck/kk] izfr'kks/k dh Hkkouk ls NqvkNwr lEcU/kh vijk/k] tcjnLrh csxkj ysus dks vijk/k /kksf"kr dj lewfpr n.M dh O;oLFkk dh x;h gS] ;Fkk%& ykblsal jn~n ;k fuyEcu] vuqnku iquxZg.k o fuyEcu] lkewfgd tqekZuk dh O;oLFkk vkfnA blds vfrfjDr bl vf/kfu;e ds vUrxZr 6 ekg ls ysdj vf/kdre nks o"kZ dh ltk o 200 #i;s ls ysdj 1000 #i;s rd tqekZus dh O;oLFkk dh x;h gSA10

gR;k%& gR;k ds fo#) Hkkjrh; n.M fo/kku dh /kkjk 302 ds vURkxZr dk;Zokgh dh tkrh gS rFkk bl tkfr ds lnL;ksa dh e`R;q gksus ij nl gtkj #i;s dh /kujkf'k dk vkfFkZd vuqnku ljdkj }kjk iznku fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ?kVukLFky dk tuin ds vf/kdkjh ,oa iqfyl v/kh{kd rFkk {ks=kf/kdkjh }kjk 24 ?k.Vs ds vUnj fujh{k.k djus dk ljdkj }kjk vkns'k gSaA

vigj.k%& vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr ds yksxksa ds vigj.k gksus ij iqfyl mudh foo'krk] vf'k{kk ,oa lk/kughurk dk ykHk mBkrh gS vkSj bUk tkfr;ksa ds lnL;ksa dh [kkstchu dj mudh thou j{kk gsrq fdlh dk;Zokgh esa vf/kd #fp iznf'kZr ugha djrh gS ftlls mUgsa lafo/kku fufgr lkekftd U;k; ,d LoIu ek= izrhr gksrk gSA ftu ekeyksa esa iqfyl dk;Zokgh djrh gSa muesa iqfyl vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr ds f'kf{kr] tkx#d] jktuhfrd nyksa ls lEcfU/kr dk;ZdrkZvksa@ usrkvkas rFkk lk/ku lEiu O;fDr;ksa vFkok muds ncko ds dkj.k gh dk;Zokgh djrh gSA

cykRdkj%& tc Hkh dHkh lekt esa vkilh nqqHkkZouk] ?k`.kk] mÙkstuk ;k dzks/k dh fpaxkjh tUe ysrh gS rks mldk f'kdkj efgyk curh gSA yksx viuh nqHkkZoukvksa dk izfrdkj efgykvksa ds lkFk cykr 'kkjhfjd lEcU/k LFkkfir dj fudkyus dk iz;kl djrs gS ftlls ihfM+r efgyk dk ifjokj ,oa leqnk; fo'ks"k #i ls vkrafdr ,oa vkdzksf'kr gksrk gSaA izk;% fuEu oxZ ds yksx Hk;o'k ml {ks= ls iyk;u Hkh dj tkrs gSaA ,d vthc ckr ;g ns[kus esa vkrh gS fd mPp tkfr ds lkeUrokgh izo`fr ds yksx ;waW rks fuEu tkfr ds iq#"k oxZ ds lnL;ksa dks vNwr le>dj lkekU;r% O;ogkj djrs gSa] ogha os fuEu tkfr;ksa dh fL=;ksa ds lkFk cykr lEcU/k LFkkfir djus esa fdlh izdkj dh fgpd ugha djrs gSa] ;g foMEcuk ugh arks D;k gS\ iqfyltu ds vuqlkj iqfyl bl izdkj ds vijk/kksa esa ,d pkSFkkbZ ekeyksa ls dqN vf/kd esa vijk/k iathd`r djrh gS vkSj bu lHkh ekeyksa esaa fpfdRldh; tkap ,oa mipkj lgk;rk djkuk mfpr le>rh gS ijUrq fo'ks"k ckr ;g gS fd og 3-5 izfr'kr] 4-8 izfr'kr rFkk 9-5 izfr'kr ekeyksa esa dze'k% lEifÙk dh dqdhZ] vijkf/k;ksa dks ltk fnykus ,oa lafnX/kksa dks fxj¶rkj djus dh dk;Zokgh gh dj ikrh gSaA

eafnj izos'k ,oa vU; /kkfeZd d`R;ksa ij jksd%& nfyr oxZ ds yksxksa ds izfr foxr dbZ 'krkfCn;ksa ls vusd fu;ksX;rk,aW yknh tkrh jgh gSA ;Fkk efUnj izos'k ij jksd] f'k{kk ls oapu] /kkfeZd d`R;ksa ij izfrcU/k] LokLF; lsokvksa ls oafpr j[kuk bR;kfnA ;|fi lu~ 1950 ds mijkUr ls laoS/kkfud #i ls bl izdkj dh fu;ksZX;rkvksa dks vekU; djkj ns fn;k x;k gS ijUrq vkt Hkh fLFkfr esa dksbZ fo'ks"k ifjorZu n`f"Vxkspj ugha gksrk gSA eafnj izos'k ,oa vU; /kkfeZd fu;kZsX;rkvksa ds QyLo#i gksus okys lkekftd vU;k; dks lekIr djus ds fy, iqfyl }kjk dh tk jgh dk;Zokfg;ksa ds lEcU/k esa 18-7 izfr'kr iqfyltu lwpuknkrkvksa dk ekuuk gS fd og le>kus&cq>kus vkSj le>kSrk djkus dk iz;kl djrs gS] 11 izfr'kr vU; dk;Zokfg;ksa ds i{k/kj gS]

ernku ls jksduk%&  Hkkjrh; iztkra= ds vUrxZr Þo;Ld erkf/kdkjÞ dk izko/kku gS vkSj tkfr] fyax] oxZHksn dks vLohd`r djrs gq, izR;sd o;Ld O;fDr dks jktuhfrd vf/kdkj iznÙk fd;k x;k gSA ijUrq lkekUr'kkgh lÙkk yksyqi mPp oxZ ds yksx nfyrksa dks izk;% bl vf/kdkj ls ckgqcy }kjk oafpr djus dk iz;kl djrs gSaA nfyrksa dks ernku ls jksduk ;k oafpr djuk muds ekSfyd jktuhfrd vf/kdkj dk lh/kk&lh/kk guu gSA mUgs bl {ks= esa U;k; fnykus ds fy;s iqfyl dks O;kid vf/kdkj fn;s x;s gSaA iqfyltu ds erkuqlkj vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr dks vU; ukxfjdksa ds leku izkIr jktuhfrd Lora=rk ds |ksrd ernku djus ds vf/kdkj ls oafpr djus okyksa ds fo#) iqfyl izFke lwpuk fjiksZV fy[kkrh gSa] vUos"k.k djrh gS vkSj 12-8 izfr'kr dks fxj¶rkj djrh gSaA ek= 2-5 izfr'kr ekeyksa esa iqfyl U;k;y; esa n.M fnyok ikrh gSA vko';d gksus ij 2-1 izfr'kr ekeyksa esa iqfyl Qjkj vijkf/k;ksa ds fo#) lEifÙk dqdZ djrh gS vkSj 8 izfr'kr ds vuqlkj iqfyl ernku ls jksdus ds fo#) gqbZ fgalk ds ?kk;y fuEu tkfr ds O;fDr;ksa dh fpfdRlk djkrh gSA ,d frgkbZ ls vf/kd dk dFku gS fd iqfyl izk;% ,sls ekeyksa esa ?kVukLFky ij gh nksuksa i{kksa dks le>k cq>k dj ekeyk fuiVk nsrh gSaA ,sls esa vU; dksbZ dk;Zokgh ugha djrh gSaA

?kjksa esa fuokZlu ,oa cfLr;ksa esa vkx yxkuk%& xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa jgus okys vuqlwfpr tkfr@tutkfr;ksa ds lnL;ksa }kjk tks fd vf/kdrj fu/kZu vkSj fu%Llgk; gksrs gS vkSj Hkwfrifr;ksa ,oa lEiUu O;fDr;ksa ds ?kjksa ij dk;Z djds xqtj&clj djrs gSA tc bu yksxksa }kjk ekuoksfpr psruk tkxzr gksus ij vFkok vU; fdlh dkj.k fo'ks"k ls rFkkdfFkr Hkwfeifr;ksa ;k lEiUu O;fDr;ksa ds ?kjksa ij dk;Z djus ls euk dj fn;k tkrk gS rks vuqlwfpr tkfr@ tutkfr;ksa ds ifjokjksa dks vkarfdr] mRihfM+r djus ds fy;s muds ?kjksa] >kSifM;ksa esa vkx yxk nh tkrh gS mUgs ?kjkas ls fudky fn;k tkrk gS rFkk xzke NksMus ij etcwj dj fn;k tkrk gSaA bl izdkj dh ?kVukvksa ls vuqlwfpr tkfr@ tutkfr;ksa ds lnL;ksa ds izfr gksus okys vU;k; vkSj ekuokf/kdkj guu dh rLohj vkaW[kksa ds lkeus vk tkrh gS vkSj bl izdkj ds vU;k;] mRihMu ,oa 'kks"k.k dh ?kVuk,a brus vf/kfu;eksa ds gksrs gq, Hkh ?kfVr gksrh jgrh gS tks vR;Ur [ksn dk fo"k; gSA

vf/kdkjksa ,oa lkekftd U;k; dh izfdz;k esa iqfyl vius dÙkZO;ksa dk orZeku esa Hkyh izdkj vuqikyu ugha dj jgh gS rFkk lkekU;tu ds vuqlkj iqfyl }kjk mPp oxZ ds yksxks dh ml izo`fÙk ij fu;a=.k gsrq lEifÙk dh dqdhZ tSlk egRoiw.kZ dne ugha mBkrh rks dsoy izpkj izlkj }kjk tuer dks tkx`r djus dk iz'u gh ugha mBrkA

fu"d"kZ%& 'kksf"kr vkSj fiNMs+ oxksZ dk ;g ekuuk gS fd iqfyl muds ekuoh; fgrksa dh lnSo mis{kk gh ugha djrh oju~ Lo;a Hkh mPp oxksZ ,oa 'kkld oxZ dh HkkaWfr muds izfr nqO;Zogkj dj U;k; izkfIr dh vk'kkvksa dks /kwy&/kwlfjr djrh gSaA mijksDr crk;s x;s dkj.kksa dks ns[krs gq, ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd vuqlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr;ksa dks muds ewyHkwr ekuo vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr djuk izR;{kr% lkekftd vU;k; gSA ,slh izR;{k ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh iqfyl }kjk bu tkfr;ksa ds lnL;ksa tks fd gekjs lekt dk vfHkUu vax gS muds ekuokf/kdkj dh j{kk lqfuf'pr u djuk vkSj mUgs lkekftd U;k; izkfIr esa lgk;rk u nsuk LoPN lekt fuekZ.k ,oa laoS/kkfud izko/kkuksa ds izfrdwy gSaA vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr oxksZ dks fodkl ,oa fgr laj{k.k ds fy, vkfne tkfr&vuqlwfpr tkfr dY;k.k foHkkxksa dh LFkkiuk dh x;h gSA ;s foHkkx mi;qDr tkfr;ksa ds 'kS{kf.kd ,oa vkfFkZd dY;k.k ds fy, vusd dY;k.kdkjh ;kstuk,aW tSls%& 'kkyk,aW] dzhMk ifjlj] vkoklh; laLFkk,] Nk= x`g ;kstuk,aW lapkfyr dj jgs gSaA

lanHkZ lwph% &

1-   lh-ikoZFkUek& 'kSM~;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl ¼1984½ vkf'k"k ifCyf'kax gkml] 8@81 iatkch ckx ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 1

2-   lh-ikoZFkUek & 'kSM~;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl ¼1984½ vkf'k"k ifCyf'kax gkml] 8@81 iatkch ckx ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 1

3-   lh-ikoZFkUek & 'kSM~;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl ¼1984½ vkf'k"k ifCyf'kax gkml] 8@81 iatkch ckx ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 2

4-   lh-ikoZFkUek & 'kSM~;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl ¼1984½ vkf'k"k ifCyf'kax gkml] 8@81 iatkch ckx ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 5

5-   lzksr Hkkjr ljdkj 1968 gS.Mcqd vkWu 'kSM;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl foey panzk mik;qDr

6-   lh-ikoZFkUek & 'kSM~;wy dkLV ,.M VªkbZCl ¼1984½ vkf'k"k ifCyf'kax gkml] 8@81 iatkch ckx ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 7

7-   Mk0 Mh oSadVojyw % gfjtu vij dkLV dfU¶yDV 1990] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkml] ubZ fnYyh i`"B la- 156

8-   ds0 ,y0 psuafpzd ,.M ljkst izlkn e.My deh'ku fjiksVZ % feFk ,.M fj;fyVh us'kuy O;w ikWbZaV 1991 ,p- ds- ifCy'klZ ,.M fMLVªhC;wVlZ , 1@11 'kfDruxj ,DlsaV'ku fnYyh bUVªksMD'ku i`"B la0 7

9-   ds0 ,y0 psuafpzd ,.M ljkst izlkn e.My deh'ku fjiksVZ % feFk ,.M fj;fyVh us'kuy O;w ikWbZaV 1991 ,p- ds- ifCy'klZ ,.M fMLVªhC;wVlZ , 1@11 'kfDruxj ,DlsaV'ku fnYyh bUVªksMD'ku i`"B la0 7

10-  vuqlwfpr tkfr vkSj tutkfr vR;kpkj fuokj.k izfdz;k dk laf{kIr fooj.k i`"B la0 19

Special Address

Security for whom? Feminist Perspectives on Security and Governance during the Pandemic

Dr. Tiina Seppälä

Senior Researcher, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Finland

The presentation critically discusses mainstream conceptualisations of security, that is, male-driven, state-oriented and Euro-centric discourses which have continued to dominate academic and political debates and imaginaries despite the global pandemic. Drawing on transdisciplinary intersections of feminist peace research, critical development studies, postcolonial theory and forced migration studies, it asks: “Security for whom, under what terms, and for what purposes?” It reflects on the ways in which displaced, migrant and refugee women, and women in other marginalised and racialised communities have visibilised complex insecurities and intensifying inequalities caused by the pandemic in their everyday lives, and utilised their knowledge and expertise not only in taking care of themselves and their families but in enacting care and solidarity also to others through community engagement and mutual aid, thus contesting mainstream understandings of security in multiple ways.


Special Address

Good Governance: A Necessary and often a Sufficient Condition for Attaining Human Security

Prof. Alka Parikh

Professor, Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Mumbai

This is a brief explanation of how good governance is closely related to human security.  A nation that is governed by a leader hated by the people would be facing countless issues related to human security. An incompetent, partisan and corrupt government also will not be able to achieve much on the human security front. But a well governed nation would make it its goal to provide a good standard of living and a good quality of life to its citizens. Citing various examples, the talk argues that democracy is not a necessary condition for achieving human security. A benevolent king or a good dictator can achieve much more security for its people compared to a chaotic democracy. The talk then concentrates on two nations - Sweden and Bhutan - to talk of how good governance leads to making a nation that assures highest levels of different aspects of human security to its citizens.


Special Address

Human Security and Global Governance Crisis in South Asia

Prof. Rajpal Budania

Professor, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

Human security has become a significant paradigm in security discourses and governance the world over. Human security is more than the military defence of the state’s existential values. It emphasises the importance of the welfare of the individuals and communities by way of protection and empowerment; best achieved through common policies and regimes by states. Human security is a progressive idea and it provides a new framework to deal with threats to security and governance. New sources of insecurities, such as extremism, terrorism, internal strife, migration and problems of refugees, financial crisis, climate change, poverty, etc., threaten the survival of many states and they cannot be tackled through traditional approaches by individual states. They require collective efforts and mechanisms by states, regionally and globally. Regional or global governance is fundamental to enhancing human security goals. South Asia remains a highly conflict-ridden region. This region is faced with all kinds of vulnerabilities and threats. There are humanitarian crises in several areas of the region.   The states in the region are having a preoccupation with state security and state-centric policy formulations despite serious humanitarian crises. At the same time, it will be instructive to explore how states in South Asia through their policies and roles have caused human insecurity. Human security can best be promoted through regional or global governance structures. The South Asian region has faced several challenges to the goals of security and governance. The states have weak institutional bases, and domestic and regional governance dynamics have been inadequate to the pursuit of human security values in the region. In fact, in recent times the domestic and international variables have further deteriorated, thus, limiting the prospects of regional governance in South Asia.

Special Address

Minority Protection from a Human Security Perspective: towards Building a Human Security Index for Minorities

Andrea Carlà

Senior Researcher, Eurac Research, Institute for Minority Rights, Italy

Security has become a recurring theme when addressing minority issues. Though minorities are often perceived as raising security concerns, the fundamental task is to ask ‘security for whom?’ and reflect on what in society really needs to be secured. Addressing this question, this contribution analyzes minority issues in terms of ‘human security’. 

Human security regards the need to guarantee the well-being of individuals, providing ‘freedom from fear,’ ‘freedom from want’ and ‘human dignity.’ I argue that a human security approach provides several insights to better deal with minority concerns, adding to the traditional goal of recognizing civil, political and cultural rights, a more comprehensive, holistic understanding of the needs and challenges faced by members of minorities. However, human security is a vague term that is not clearly operationalized. In this light, this contribution aims at discussing the implications of addressing minority protection from a human security perspective as well as the need for an innovative human security index that applies specifically to cultural diversity issues and allows to measure the degree of human security provided to minorities, setting some preliminary thoughts for its development.

Special Address

Understanding Value of Human Security: A Buddhist Reading

Rev. Dr. Wadinagla Pannaloka

Head, Department of Buddhist Thought, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies  University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

Readings of Buddhism can be divided into two when we come to discuss the theme of human security. Some group of scholars have tried to show that Buddhism is not concerned with secular matters but only otherworldly matters and individual liberation. The second category of scholars, who have directly discussed the theme of human security, though do not try to characterize Buddhism as other-world oriented religion, emphasize mental transformation through moral training as the only way to attain human security. The present paper assuming a different position from both these categories, first argues that Buddhist teachings are concerned with well-being of society at this moment. Then, the paper will address the point how Buddhism proposes taking concrete actions at physical level to assure human security at two levels, individual and social. At the individual level, the person must awake empathy towards all fellow human beings by understanding how oneself loves life and fears of insecurity. This aspect is covered by training morality (observing moral rules-sīla) and mental cultivation (samādhi). At the collective level, Buddhism demands the rulers to take necessary actions to assure security of the public in a country. The Buddhist way of guiding rulers is to demand them to adhere to moral teachings. The teachings such as ten royal duties (dasa rāja dhammā), seven non-degenerative principles (satta aparihiniyā dhammā) and duties of universal monarch (cakkavatti) produce a systematic guidance. By taking a close analysis of the Buddhist texts and empirical narratives reflected in the Buddhist texts and Buddhist societies, the present study will try to examine how practicing these teachings are conducive to bring about human security at the state-level

Special Address in a Special Panel

Rise of Sectarian Nationalism in India

Prof. Dr. Ram Puniyani

President, Centre for Study of Society and Secularism, Mumbai


During last few decades Sectarian Nationalism, in the name of Hindutva is on the rise in India. It has taken up issues related to identity of religion and targeted Religious minorities, Muslims and Christians. Thrpugh raising emotive pitch around Ram Temple, Cow-Beef, Love_Jihad it has targeted Msulims and through the bogey of conversion it has tageted Christians. There is an increase in the attacks on these communities and a gross violation of their democratic and Human rights. The violence against Muslims was witnessed in Mumbai, Gujarat, Muzaffarnagar and recently in Delhi. The ghastly burning of Pastor Graham Stewart Stains and Kandhamal Violence tormented the Christian Community.

Along with this is the attack on India's marginalized dalits and women. We need a great challenge to preserve our democratic ethos to protect the human rights of all sections of society.


Special Address as Organising Secretory of the Conference

Covid-19 Pandemic and Human Security: An Appraisal from Bangladeshi Perspective

Dr Sujit Dutta

Associate Professor

Department of International Relations, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

The Covid-19 pandemic has emerged as one of the most significant security threats to humankind in the 21st century. About 1 billion people have already been infected with the coronavirus, and about 8 million people have died so far from this Covid-19 pandemic; like the other countries in the world, the infection and death rate of Covid-19 increases day by day in Bangladesh. It proves how helpless man is to nature and this unconventional threat! The lives of the marginalized people of Bangladesh are most affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. On the other hand, the relationship between the social structure of society and power continues to determine the severity of the pandemic in human life. The most hopeful thing for Bangladesh is a disaster-prone country that has always been moving forward by overcoming various crises. Bangladesh has already devised many strategies to address the humanitarian crisis through which they have stood tall in the world. Bangladesh has made some landmark decisions in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, which has resulted in the protection of much of the human security of the people of Bangladesh. The primary purpose of this paper is to find out how the Covid-19 pandemic has threatened the security of the people of Bangladesh.

Special Address in the Valedictory Session

Children Rights and Governance in India

Alok Kumar Gupta

Associate Professor , Department of International Relations Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi


Children are citizens in their own right, entitled to the full spectrum of human rights. Primary reason for protection of rights of children is because of the fact that the children are comparatively more vulnerable than adults to the conditions under which they live. The modernization of any culture and civilization is reflected in the fulfilment of state’s obligation to the young generation; the way it opens up opportunities for every child to groom his/her personality and achieve physical, mental, moral and spiritual heights in life. The global leadership did recognise about the cries for justice to children and made adequate arrangements by way of conventions and protocols. Hence, the prevalence of good governance in a country irrespective of the form of government largely depend upon its measures for protection of child rights and promotion of their well-being. 

India has the largest number of child labourers under the age of 14 in the world with an estimated 12.6 million children engaged in hazardous occupations. [Modern Slavery Index, 2013]. 13,40,000 children below the age of 5 die in a year accounting to 3671 child deaths per day. Nearly half of all child deaths under 5 in India are attributed to undernutrition. 1 in every 11 children in India is working, when they should be at school. More than half (56%) of the under 5 deaths occur within the first 28 days of coming to life. India accounts for more than 3 out of 10 stunted children in the world. 47% of the women in India are married when they are child, before the age of 18, and 30% bear a child when they are a child and end up as adolescent mothers. 17.7 million children and adolescents are out of school in India, which is 14% of the World’s population of children out of school. 20% of Grade-II children in India cannot recognize numbers 1 to 9. 53 % of children drop out of school at elementary level. 49.5 % of Grade-V children cannot do subtraction and 55% of Grade-VIII children cannot solve 3 digits by 1 digit division problem. 51% of children of Grade-VIII cannot read Grade-II text. These statistics may be based on conservative estimates.

Child related issues are writ large in Indian society. Child marriage, child abuse, beggary, bonded labour, corporal punishments, sex selective abortion, are to name but a few. There are umpteen number of legal and policy interventions to facilitate the growth and development of children, and protection and promotion of their rights. Therefore, it makes it imperative to explore as to what is wrong within the system that in spite of availability of laws and policy the children are not safe. This is a serious bottleneck towards India’s


road to good governance. Author thus intents to discuss in his paper the status of child rights in India; the measures taken so far; and enumerate the major imperatives to ensure and enhance security of children in India. 


Governance Practices of Supreme Student Government (SSG) in the Public Secondary Schools in Region III: A Paradigm Shift of 21st Century Leaders

Anthony Gambon Pumaras

Teacher , Victoria National High School, Philippines

Dr. Gilbert P. Moralista

Pangasinan State University, Pangasinan, Philippines

This study focused on the governance practices of Supreme Student Government (SSG) in the public secondary schools in Region III, Central Luzon with the end view of a paradigm shift of 21st Century leaders. Frequency counts, percentages, average weighted mean, point-biserial, spearman, chi-square test and MANOVA were used to treat the data statistically. The extent of governance practices was found to be significantly correlated with the age, grade level and the mothers’ highest educational attainment of the student leaders with the extent of governance practices along duties and functions of SSG officers. Meanwhile, the extent of governance practices was found to be significantly correlated with the frequency of manifestation of the 21st Century Leadership skills. The substantial and positive relationship suggests that student leader with high extent of governance practices of SSG officers tend to have the high frequency of manifestation of the 21st Century leadership skills. The researcher strongly recommends SSG advisers and officers should have to be more focused upon the needs, concerns, and interests of its constituents. It should organize a regular forum where it could gain insights about the concerted needs of the students.




Ongoing Pandemic and its impact on the Horizon of Women Trafficking in India: A Reflection on Sustainable Development Goals


Dr. Amrita Banerjee


Assistant Professor, Bidhan Chandra College Asansol, India Affiliated to Kazi Nazrul University.West Bengal


The term ‘sustainability’ is essentially related with the relationship between the environment and society. The policy makers possess a complex challenge of simultaneously preserving the natural environment and promote development in the production of the basic needs for the common citizens. For resolving these two paradoxical problems have however taken the form of the concept “THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT”, that is the development which help in achieving the basic needs of the common without hampering the needs of the future generations. Government however achieved consensus in support of this development and however have periodically pledged to carefully formulate the policies for such development without any compromise with the environment. Poverty and health possess a direct relationship with environment. When the poverty level decreases it decreases the condition of the common and thus degradation of the environment take place simultaneously. The major countries of the world are however below the poverty level and Covid-19 is threatening to plunge millions more into poverty and worsen global hunger altogether. The pandemic has changed the view towards every aspect of life and keeping this in view the focus of the paper is made on the non- conventional security threat perception challenging the democratic institutions of justice i.e., human trafficking with special reference to women and sustainable development has been one of the potential areas which have been discussed in this paper at length wherein lies the methods to be adopted to check this modern form of slavery which is one of the worst violations of human rights.


Content analysis of News Related To women, Published in News Paper


Dr Kiran Walia


Associate Professor, Amity School of Communication, Amity University Mumbai


My research paper includes gender security approach in the selection, placement, and presentation of news related to women in Print media. The comparative study of the newspapers published 15 years back was full of skill related to art, craft, stitching, pass time tips etc. also, portray of women in the print media of the year 2002 to 2004, depicts that household work, taking care of family members, upbringing of children, cleaning, cooking, and to serve according to the need of each family member with great care is the prime duty of women. Professionalism and careerist approach is secondary. The articles on Wednesday and Sunday special editions of the Daily Newspapers are full of different sectors such as home décor, cookery tips, childcare, clothe care, and also include features like ‘how to make husband happy, how to maintain relationship with In laws, it was guided by the author that women should not be self-centric but should compromise with self and self-esteem. An ideal woman according to male dominated ideology inspired writer would categorize kind of lady more graceful, with no liberation of taking decision at her own, she was not allowed to travel alone and to maintain financial transactions. A lady without any queries, choices and vision considered a perfect homely creature. Accordingly, characteristic feature of an Indian Women, presentation of women related news with male dominated perspective. Inspired with orthodox framework of mindset, ideology towards women as a home maker, cook and not as a sports person or technical personality. The mentality and selection of words accordingly was not respectful. Developmental news of women is rarely presented on front page or at prominent page, but sensational and negative news are on front page. The crime related news is exaggerated such as rape news, molestation, legal proceeding of rape and remarks by politicians, officials were published with prominence as if women are not supposed to come out of house and should not wear clothes that appeal man for lust. Choice, desires and freedom from do’s and don’ts are not meant for women. The news of achievement, women liberation, struggle for freedom from male dominance etc are covered in very short and scattered manner. The impact and display of these news was not so loud comparatively. The news related to women in films, exposure to national or international level achievement, struggle for freedom, talent, controversy, and crime, are all treated at same level. The positive and inspirable stories are less. Hence the mentality of “media” was orthodox towards women related issues and their placement in news media. The news of women was more of preaching and portrayed as a perfect housewife, which was considered more successful and satisfying than a woman in job depicting her problems such as failure in relationships, responsibilities towards children and maintenance of house, cooking etc. economic independence of a women and the character of women is always doubtful if the outfit is modern. In nutshell my research paper analyzes types of news & articles published for women with bias perspective.






Culture of Inequality: Status of Girl Child Education in North Indian Patriarchal Society


Dr. Kanchan Chandan


Teaching Faculty, Punjab University Chandigarh, Punjab


Girls' childhood and education in India, as well as the historical development of the Nation's ability to cope with gender issues, had always been an imperative theme for study for social scientists. The conventions and rituals that girls are brought up in and gendered into womanhood form a regime that is incompatible with the ideal vision of childhood embodied in child-centred educational strategies. The structural predisposition of the Indian state under colonialism is to maintain patriarchy, unless education is epistemologically reconceptualized with the support of collaborative academic endeavours together with numerous disciplines, it is unlikely that it will be able to address gender asymmetry. In India, gender imbalances lead to a great deal of emphasis on male than of female’s empowerment and education. Health and population indicators that are steer by gender differences includes sex ratios at birth, infant and child mortality by sex, and low ages at marriage for women. At the household level, dis-empowerment of women results in less access to education, employment, and income, and power and freedom of movement. While keeping all these facts in mind, India and its society has a huge mission of empowering women to provide them the basic needs and to prepare them for a safe and productive future. The core emphasis of study is explore the most marginalised strata of our society i.e. women and the girl child and their struggle to meet up to the normative set up of the society


Globalisation and the issue of Non-security threats in India


Surender Singh


Assistant Professor, Jawahar Lal Nehru Government College, Haripur, Manali, Himachal Pradesh


The issue of non-traditional security threats are emerging in the present world order. The states are also focusing on the issue of non-traditional security threats after covid-19. The present paper deals with the emerging importance and significance of Non-traditional security threats. The importance also marked after the outbreak of Covid-19. The first section deals with the issue of health and agriculture in India and its relevance for the human security. The second section deals with the significance of environment and its importance for the human security while relating the debate with present deadlock at international level. The conclusion is driven while relating the concept of human security with these important issues. Key Words: Globalisation, Securitisation, Non-traditional threats, Nation–States, Human Security


Governance Through Historical Prism


Dr. Shobha Singh


Assistant Professor, Shri Ratanlal Kanwarlal Patni Government P.G. College, Kishangarh, Rajasthan


Since the Inception of the state, the task of the government has been to govern, to cater the needs of the society. The Dawn of globalisation is said to has brought about notion of good governance and  has imposed upon the governments that their task is not simply to govern but govern effectively and efficiently, in a manner receptive to the needs of the citizen. The quintessential of good governance appears to be a set of principles towards maximization of citizen welfare efficiency,effectiveness, participation,  accountability, rule of law.  There was a presumption that ancient government were mainly monarchial and the times did not favour good governance rather it was all dependent on the sweet will of the King, law was the command of the sovereign, the king personified the state and citizen had no role in rule making. The Government consisted of numerous organs but the king was Supreme. Tt is strongly contended that citizen responsive administrative is a western model and a product of globalisation.
The earliest record of governance is found in the Vedas. Primarily they are hymns of worship but they also gave us an idea of the Socio-Political condition prevalent during that period. The vedic literature consists of Ideas to be followed both by the sovereign and the subjects for the maintenance of peace and happiness in the kingdom. The Shantiparva of Mahabharata, a discourse on state craft delivered by Bhiswa to Yudhister comprehensively describes the functions, duties of the good King, both during normal times and during period of crisis. The king had a moral political and social obligation to provide for good governance though the concept was not as explicit as it appears today. The Arthshastra is  the most important work in Hindu political thought. The  concept of welfare state is embedded in Kautilya's guidelines of statecraft wherein it is stated that in the happiness of the subjects lies his happiness, in their welfare his welfare, whatever pleases himself he shall not consider as good, but whatever makes a subject happy he shall consider good.  Arthshastra gives to the Welfare of the citizens,  the first place in all consideration of policy, the common good of the people and their sustained happiness are considered as main ends for the service of which Kautilya called out an elaborate administrative system.


Human Security, Healthcare Access and Trends in Global Health Inequalities: Governance and Legal Remedies in the light of post COVID- 19 Pandemic


Dr. Bhupinder Singh


Associate Professor of Law, CHRIST (Deemed to be University) Delhi NCR, New Delhi


Good quality of life needs good health and our facility to enjoy life is directly influenced by our ability to avoid sickness or injury. The most popular metric for describing a population's health is life expectancy. According to historical statistics, global life expectancy has risen dramatically over the last two centuries, with significant long-term gains in all countries. Indeed, recent increases in life expectancy in developing countries have been particularly significant. The prevention of disease and fitness of human being, good health also put very important contribution to economic progress of any country as healthy people put fewer burdens on healthcare infrastructure, life span increases, more productive to work, take less medicines, etc. The study of public health seeks to identify the factors that affect the health of communities, cities and society at large and to ensure that conditions and policies that protect health on this scale are put into place. This field has become more important than ever with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, unquestionably the most serious global public health challenge of our lifetime. Public health experts are playing a vital role in shaping our response to COVID-19 by mapping the spread of the illness, identifying ways to slow its transmission and mitigate its impacts, and formulating recommendations for action geared towards policymakers as well as the public. The people’s healthcare and its protection is the task of medical professionals through a multiplicity of arenas which includes proper medicine, healthcare legislations, policies/programs/plans/schemes, innovation in healthcare, social science, medicare research, etc. Reductions in infant and maternal mortality have been critical in the past for increasing life expectancy around the world. However, significant gaps persist in both of these health measures: infant mortality rates in low-income countries are already more than ten times higher than those in high-income countries. Pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea, and other illnesses claim children’s lives. There is substantial evidence that social factors such as education, employment status, income level, gender, and hygiene have a significant impact on a person's health. There are considerable differences in various social classes' health status in all countries, whether they are low-, middle-, or high-income. The lower a person's socioeconomic status is, the greater their chance of poor health. Health inequities are disparities in health status or health resource distribution among different demographic groups that result from the social circumstances in which people are born, develop, live, work, and age. Inequities in health care are unjust and can be minimized with the correct combination of government policies. People's well-being is an essential aspect of their well-being because it improves their ability to engage in the labour market and benefit from economic and job growth. Increased focus on public health and disease prevention and increased access to health care will help vulnerable groups improve their health and life expectancy and raise their job rates and social inclusion. Systematic disparities in the health status of various demographic groups are known as health inequities. Individuals and economies alike bear substantial social and economic costs as a result of these inequities.






Impact of Climate Change on the Coastal Belt of Andaman Islands


Dr. Bibhuti Bhusan Biswas


Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Central University of Jharkhand, Cheri-Manatu, Ranchi, Jharkhand


Climate Change today remains one of the most serious and unavoidable threats to the animals, planets, human kind and entire biodiversity in general. Andaman Islands are home to four indigenous tribes and diverse ecosystem and wildlife. Besides, pre and post 1942 settlers from mainland India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar also living in the islands. According to IPCC reports there was globally more about 15 mm rise in sea level in 20th century but currently sea level is increasing 3 mm per year. So with the increasing sea level in near future these islands region may not be hospitable for human to live. Similarly the effects of climate change are easily visible with the unusual cyclones that are continuously occurring for a long time. On the other hand due to booming in the tourism industry, infrastructural developments and various other development activities brought a significant change in the demographic pattern of the region as well as in the climate behaviour. In respect to India’s geo-strategic interest, Andaman and Nicobar Islands has the choke point for the strategic points of view that will be given the command towards the regional power as well the international politics. Whereas, the climate change has another challenges for geo-strategic implication on the coastal level that the impact and risk of high temperature reducing the working productive. Most of the research and report talks about climate change in Andaman and Nicobar Islands in general and hence, this research is going to discuss the following issues related to climate change and its impact on Deforestation, Migration, Illegal Poaching, and Growing Unemployment due to climate and growing tour and travel industry in the islands


India’s Quest for Self-Reliance in the Defence Sector: The Dilemma of Defence or Development


Dr. Alok Kumar Gupta


Associate Professor, Central University of Jharkhand, Jharkhand


Defence and Development have remained companions to each other in India’s National Security discourse and are largely perceived within the “guns vs butter debate. The general notion is that the defence expenditure is indispensable for maintaining national security, integrity, peace, harmony, etc. India is not an exception to this ideology. To main a secure stable and peaceful environment, defence expenditure is mandatory. In India planned development has been going on for several decades now. During this period various sectors of the economy have witnessed a record level of development. Despite all this development, India’s population growth has not slowed down. The rise in population poses a major challenge to economic growth initially further hindering human development. Therefore, Human Resource Development is the only pragmatic approach to tackle the problem of population and development in India. The assessment of the economic and social effects of military expenditure has been a debatable issue for decades. Defence spending has a positive impact on economic growth through its impact on aggregate demand, internal and external security-enhancing investment and employment opportunity in an economy, and an adverse impact on economic growth mainly through its crowding-out effects and balance of payment issues. Investment in defence also creates job opportunities and hence, increases purchasing power and demand for goods and services and boost economic growth. Thus, the debate of gun vs butter or defence vs development is a matter of perception and both the expenditure are indispensable and cannot be neglected


Non-vegetarianism and Sustainable food system: An Indian Perspective


Divya Mishra


Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Magadh University, BodhGaya, Bihar


Non Traditional security interests have redefined international relations and challenged the neo-liberal state in substantial ways. Food reduces actors as self help groups and makes trade politics substantially protective but formally multilateral. Developing systems are in pressure to feed their bourgeoning population with limited resources while they are still dependent on unsustainable means. In such a background, food sector is one that demands greatest innovation. The present paper seeks to analyze sustainable food systems and its applicability in Indian context, especially the food versus feed debate and the vegetarian versus non-vegetarian perspective. In Indian, it is not only the pragmatic concerns of land resources, feed formulation and livestock production but also the contested ethos of vegetarianism that has seen state intervention in recent times. The paper will investigate the chances of triangulating trends in consumer preferences, producer challenges and sustainable feeding within the broader Indian environment


Operationalising human security: What role for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P)?


Raymond Kwun-Sun Lau


Department of Political Science & Sociology, North South University, Bangladesh


Since its birth in the Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1994, the human security concept a people-centred approach has not only broadened the meaning of security but also challenged the traditional state-centric approach to international security. The UN General Assembly’s adoption of the resolution (A/RES/66/290) in September 2012 has, for the first time, formally recognised human security as an approach to ‘assist Member States in identifying and addressing widespread and cross-cutting challenges to the survival, livelihood and dignity of their people’. Yet, while there have been thematic debates and panel discussions on human security within the UN, there has been a gradual shift away from their advocacy of human security to the responsibility to protect (R2P) among key UN member states. Notwithstanding the reluctance of the UN member states to fully endorse human security, little attention has been paid to exploring the role the R2P principle in promoting and operationalising human security. This chapter, therefore, seeks to understand the relationship between R2P and human security. It particularly pays attention to how R2P can play a role in operationalising human security. In line with former Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy’s efforts to situate ‘human security in the R2P era’, this chapter argues that the R2P principle can help clarify the scope and sharpen the focus of human security, thereby strengthening the implementation of the concept. R2P, in this sense, can be used either as a policy framework or a mobilisation tool for strengthening the people-centred human security concept via highlighting the importance of a state's responsibility to protect its population.


Social Media redefining the boundaries of Human Security


Dr. Ruhi Sarangal

Assistant Professor, Chandigarh Business School of Administration, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali


Dr. Ashok Kumar


Assistant Professor,  Defence and Strategic Studies, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh


The boundaries of human security have been evolving and leading to explore the new dimensions being added to it. Human security no longer confines just to the physical aspects or to the border issues. The new virtual world has been emerged due to technological advancements which have redefined the dimensions of human security, with the advent of social media. The rapid growth of social media has prepared the structure of information to be disseminated and identified in an exponential manner. The explosive growth and popularity of the various social media platforms have lead to a change in perspective and lifestyle of individuals and encouraging communication across the globe. The novel element of the social media has made lives different and updated in the virtual spaces but has anyways opened up to the vulnerabilities and threats that were unknown earlier. Clearly, this trend represents a significant challenge for both users and administrators. In fact, the widespread adoption of social networking sites has raised a wide range of security and privacy concerns, which have not been fully addressed yet. In many cases, users are not even aware of the disclosure of their personal information through their profiles. Leakage of a user’s personal information happens to have various security dimensions which pose a great threat to human security. This paper will examine the various dimensions of User’s privacy as a threat to human security.


State of Asian Trade and International Labor Law: Needs to be Revised for Labor Human Security


Prof. Faridul Alam


Professor, Department of International Relations, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh


Being home to over half of the world’s work force, the quality of work in the Asia-Pacific region obviously has enormous consequences for the aggregate total welfare of workers globally. Just by account of its large size, the region naturally houses a large absolute quantity of labor problems, which makes it important to go beyond absolute numbers. After the Second World War, mistrust of social welfare was rampant among the East Asian NICs. In the 1960s, social welfare was considered of secondary importance to economic policy and was developed to meet needs only to the extent that they would not hinder economic development. The UNDP in their Human Development report in 2006 though recognized Asia as has embraced free trade, questioned whether the free trade embraced Asia’s poor as well or not. While much has been written about the relative success of the Asia-Pacific region under globalization, the reality is that growth has been unequal and exclusionary in most countries. Non-compliance on International Labor Standards (ILS) has of various forms, which are being frequently witnessed in the Asian countries. Minimum wages can be an important part of the policy toolkit to meet the needs of workers and their families. However, minimum wages do not adequately fulfill this role if non-compliance is widespread.


The Human Security And World Politics


Dr. Sitaram Choudhary


Associate Professor, Department of ABST, Government College, Dudu, Rajasthan


The human security agenda in world politics is commonly viewed as a conceptual challenge to the realist approaches to security that have, until recently, dominated both academic Security Studies and, to some extent, the practice of international politics. Where realist approaches privilege the state as the primary referent for security (whose security is to be protected), proponents of human security emphasize the ways in which states often compromise the security of their own citizens. In particular, where repressive political regimes generate insecurity for their citizens through the denial of basic human rights, the human security agenda foregrounds attention to the security concerns of individual men and women. Second, where realist approaches posit a narrow, conception of security, focused on the threat and use of military force, many formulations of human security argue for a broader, more holistic - or developmentcentered - understanding of security in which economic, health and environmental concerns are recognized as important sources of insecurity. Although it is often assumed that recasting security in holistic and people-centered UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS GLOBAL SECURITY AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY - Vol. I - The Human Security Agenda in World Politics - Pauline Ewan ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) terms open up space for a new, more ‘progressive’ form of security politics; many critics fear the analytical and political dangers that may accompany a broad, development-centred conception of security. Crucially, critics argue that ideas about human security cannot be separated out from the wider power relations that structure the international system. In this respect, where human security becomes a justification for heavy handed forms of military intervention, it may signal the emergence of what critics have called a new, post-imperialist regime of power.


Women Empowerment in India: Path to Human Security and sustainable development


Dr. Tanushri Purohit


Associate Professor, Amity Business School, Amity University Haryana


Across the globe there is an imperative need to devise gender mainstreaming strategies in conjunction with human security interventions to promote women’s empowerment. Empowerment is a "multi-dimensional social process that assists people in taking responsibility of their own life." It is a process that develops people's power so that they can use it in their own lives, communities, and society by acting on issues that they consider essential. Women's empowerment comprises enabling and encouraging women to make life-changing decisions on a variety of subjects in the country. To nurture sustainable development there is a need to understand the power of empowerment. The paper attempts to look into the context of women empowerment in relation to the dynamism of human security for long term sustainable development


Women Security and Governance


Dr. Nitesh Bhatia


Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi, Jharkhand


Women represent almost half of the Indian population. Where, rural areas are home to three fourth of India. Devoid of basic education and awareness of human rights coupled with deep rooted superstitious beliefs makes like more vulnerable for women in particular.
Various Central and State government schemes and programmes have been launched to improve the live and livelihood of rural women with a view of generating women security and empowerment. Every new programme launched included the observations of failures of the previous programmes, one such programme is National Rural Livelihood Mission, launched in 2011, integrating the learnings from Integrated Rural Development Programme launched in 1991. NRLM aims to develop women's life by developing them into Self Help Groups. Similar to other State Mission Management Units, Jharkhand State Livelihood Promotion Society has been bestowed with the responsibility of implementing the mission and moving towards the holistic development of rural women. The NGOs have a grassroot connection with the people residing in the rural pockets. With the effecient support and collaboration of Government, Non-Government Organisations and People, women security and holistic development can be attained.

Few instances of the progress made by JLSPS in the last decade are Jangal Bachao Abhiyan, Udan Pariyojana, JOHAR pariyojana and Garima Pariyojana. JSLPS have promoted hundreds of women to start up their own venture by taking loan from their respective SHGs. The visible ones are Grocery Stores, Pickle-making business, Beauty-parlors etc.
Keeping in mind the challenges posed by Global warming, trainings related to various off-farm and non-farm livelihood opportunities have been provided to free the rural women from the shackles of socio-economic insecurities.


Women, Security and Governance - Towards a Gender Inclusive Society


Dr. Nima John


Officiating Director & Head of Institution, Amity School of Communication & Amity Film School, Amity University Mumbai, Mumbai


Study of Strategies, Practices and Policies related to Gender Inclusive Society. Gender occupies a central position amongst the many axis of discrimination and exclusion. Safety and Gender inclusion are broad aspects for any society. The study the focuses on the ability of women to participate, to study, to work and move around, and more specifically to address the violence that women and girls face in the process of carrying out their daily activities. The paper deals with the Women's Safety in India – Concern and Challenges. It highlights the concept of violence against women in India, the need for security and the reformation of security policies. Further, discussing the principles of good security sector governance and engaging with security sector reform (SSR) can help to achieve the goals of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda.


Education & Governance


Prof. Dr. Gouri Shankar Nag


Professor, Head of the Department of Political Science, Co-ordinator of the Atish Dipankar Srijnan Centre of South Asian Studies, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, West Bengal


First of all, I wish to congratulate the organizers of this prestigious international conference on Human Security and Governance for taking up this burning issue for deliberation especially in the post-Covid phase of looming uncertainty when we are trying frantically to muster confidence in our journey towards comprehensive, holistic and sustainable development. The pathology of the crisis unleashed by the pandemic was humongous yet the introspection was worth rewarding in the sense that appraised the value of our critical thinking on our hitherto porous and inadequate conceptualization of security. From that perspective, this conference is inspirational for it flags the gaps in our traditional conceptual map of security, and further brings about a revolution in our mindset that education and governance could be significant agents of a desirable process of transformation. Even if the thoughts of the platform may be esoteric or tech-savvy, the effect of communicative action of this conference could turn into a veritable input much like the missionary zeal for the realisation of positive shift in the philosophy of society, to make education more broad based and governance to become more humane, less-hierarchical and eclectic, thereby changing the notion and dynamics of security lock, stock and barrel. As Professor Amartya Sen has stressed on freedom as empowerment, in the same vein I presume that the academic discussion would be most prolific in suggesting the emerging contours of Human Security in widest possible manner, thereby touching upon nuanced aspects while upholding the vision of Human Security in sync with public health, adult education, financial stability and mass mobilization and proliferation for social coalition for participation in decision making.


A Pandemic within the Pandemic: Gender related violence in India


Dr. Somdatta Banerjee


Assistant Professor, New Alipore College, Kolkata, West Bengal


The insecurities of women and children became evident during the Covid 19 phase. The primary reason for this has been that with the advent of the pandemic, the world followed the policy of ‘stay-at-home’ and ‘shelter-in-place’ which primarily aimed to keep us safe. But for countless women worldwide, home didn’t turn up to be a safe zone. They suddenly found themselves shut in with their abusers. Confinement has fostered tensions in many homes. The jobless partners with immense stress and tension to run the household and the escalating anxiety among them made them abuser. India is no exception to this. With already high rates of domestic violence cases, situations of women and the children became worse during the pandemics. A report from the leading daily Hindu showed that in 2020, between March 25 and May 31, 1,477 complaints of domestic violence were made by women. This 68-day period recorded more complaints than those received between March and May in the previous 10 years. Amidst this backdrop, this paper would study the parallel existence of two pandemics, vulnerabilities faced by women and children during this period and the measures taken up for redressing this and how much could really be achieved.



Significance Of Human Security In The Age Of Pandemic

Anju Gupta

Assistant Professor , JECRC University, Jaipur, Rajasthan


The pandemic is now being compared to a war. COVID-19 is not only a health crisis but also a human security crisis. It is depriving freedom from want, fear and freedom to live with peace& dignity. The pandemic demands human security approach of inclusiveness, human protection and empowerment.

The concept of human security was introduced in policy discussions in 1990s’. This concept is an integration of development and security, which broadly encircles non-military nature of security concerns. This approach were highly criticized for widening security threats beyond war. This pandemic has marked a paradigm shift in the security scenario. The pandemic which has taken millions of lives across the globe has undermined our safety and security.
Not only medical solutions, measures should also address repercussions on health, economics, politics, society and culture. On the economic front, stock markets have nose- dived. The closures and lockdowns have badly affected both goods and services industries. The entire world is agonized from fear and want.

The pandemic has also affected politics, both domestic as well as international. Some countries seek to gain from the pandemic, which has led to competition and confrontation among nation states.  It has marred the concept of traditional security by sending the wrong signal to those keen to develop biological weapons. The traditional defense mechanism has failed to control this new enemy and it is directly hitting on the three key elements of Human Security vis-à-vis Human Development, viz. Health, Education and Income. The virus does not know boundaries .We cannot get out of this situation all alone. Hence, competition and confrontation will lead to nothing but lose this war. The only option left is to cooperate to shape a globally and regionally coordinated response.






Cyber Crimes Against Women In India: Issues And Challenges Before Women Security And Governance


Mr. Pankaj Kumar


Assistant Professor , Baba Farid Law College, Faridkot, Punjab


The information technology has brought a great revolution in the communication space for making world a global village and giving equal realization of rights to women. Invention of worldwide web, computer and other electronic devices changed women's standard of living. The open and unregulated nature of the internet and the irrelevance of geography mean that the internet provides fertile ground for criminal enterprise. Cyber crimes are generally committed through Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms resulting into blackmailing, bullying or cheating via messenger messages and emails. The dignity, privacy and security of a woman always remain under threat on new online platform. The author has made an attempt to highlight the genesis of cyber crime against women in India, it's various existing forms, strength of our legal system to combat this novel threat effectively, role of judiciary, impact of covid-19 period and the need to evolve some well defined mechanism to address this issue completely and effectively.



Drone Warfare And Human Security


Soumyadeep Bidyanta,


Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi


The last couple of decades have seen a massive proliferation in the use of armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV’s, also known as Drones). Drone strikes have been a staple of America’s global war on terror, and have been used extensively in the Middle East, North and East Africa, and the AfPak region. In the recent few years, drones have also been used in peer conflicts and civil wars, particularly those where proxy actors are involved. Such a rise in the use of drones has also brought about concerns of human security, given the possibility of civilian casualties arising out of drone strikes and drone warfare. This paper would look into this aspect, and examine how increasing drone proliferation has worsened human security for the populations involved, and what can be done to contain it.



E-Governance In India: Challenges Faced In Implementation


Sajad Ahmad Mir


Research Scholar, Desh Bhagat University ,Punjab


E-governance is the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) by the government to offer its services to the citizens in online mode through the internet . E-governance in modern times is one of the most effective and efficient forms of governance. Governments throughout the world today are using ICT tools to provide their services to the citizens in an effective manner. Today almost every country in the world is implementing e-governance by taking initiatives towards the implementation of E-governance Especially by developing countries including India. E-governance not only ensures Transparency in government services but also has many other benefits Like Reduction in Corruption and making the government more accountable. India is probably the fastest developing country in the world at present. the population of India is the second-largest in the world which accounts for 17.7% of the total population of the world .it is not an easy task to govern a country like India for any government. E-governance is one of the best forms of government. There is a large number of challenges in the implementation of E-GOVERNANCE in India. This research paper Explains the Main challenges faced by India in the implementation of E-governance.




Health And Governance


Dr Archana Anand


Associate Professor, Government Girls College Tonk, Rajasthan


Good governance has been discussed as a new concept for poverty alleviation and economic development by global organizations, but this concept has been neglected in the health system. Therefore, this study was conducted with the goal of analysing good governance in health system. Method: This systematic review was conducted by using valid data bases such as Medline, Scopus, Elsevier, PubMed, Ovid, CINAHEL, ScienceDirect, Springer and Web of Science and after screening at different stages, articles were evaluated and analysed based on inclusion criteria. Results: Among 360 studies, 10 research were included. Three studies had evaluated the aspects of good governance in the health system and seven cases were discussed in the study of governance frameworks of health systems. Conclusions: Despite the emphasis of this study, using eight dimensions of participation, including: Rule of law, transparency, accountability, equality, efficiency and effectiveness, responsibility and the formation of general consensus in analysing good governance of countries, designing a native model of good governance in the health system in different societies, is essential.



Human Security And Pandemic


Dr. Shikha Nagori


Assistant Professor , Bhupal Nobles University, Udaipur, Rajasthan


The conception of human security represents a departure from traditional notion of security, which concentrate on the security of the state. Human security goes beyond state and focuses security of Individualities anywhere in world, and its end thing is the protection of people from traditional and unconventional pitfalls similar as poverty, hunger, complaint, etc. Human security entered into the policy and academic debates in the early 1990s. Human development report of UN in1994 was the pivotal corner. Core theme of human security is that securing state isn't same as securing individualities and military trouble is only one of the multiple pitfalls to individualities which need collaboration of multiple actors including countries. Covid-19 exposes the structural inequalities and contradictions which underpin norms of security in many societies, given that experiences of security and insecurity are shaped by gender, socio-economic inequalities, and ethnicity.



Human Security And Sustainable Development.


Varkha Khanchi


Assistant Professor, Choudhary Ishwar Singh Kanya Mahavidhyalya Dhand-Dadwana, Haryana


Human security is one of the vital concept in the contemporary world. Human security is a universal concept i.e. it is applicable to everywhere. In the year 1994 human development report, defined human security as people’s “Safety from chronic threats and protection from sudden hurtful disruptions in the patterns of daily life.” Seven types of security were listed as components of human security: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal(physical) security, community security and political security. Sustainable governance is governance of organization which is both lawful and which promotes a good life for all, now and far into the future. There are laws that formate sustainability, laws that are neutral and laws that permit unsustainable behaviour and governance. This paper examines the relationship between human security and sustainable governance means relationship between development, good governance and economic security. Human security is directly linked to development. Underdevelopment means there is no human security. The main cause of insecurity and instability is poverty and without development there can e no security. So development is a prerequisite for security. Sustainable governance has a positive affect on the implementation of right to development and access to security.


Human Security And The Effect Of The Pandemic On Education


Sarmita Dey


Visiting Professor, Amity University, Mumbai, Maharashtra


The Covid-19 pandemic has reaped havoc in the world, depriving people of their means of livelihood and education and posing challenges to the existing health care infrastructure in the world. This in turn has resulted in deterioration of human development leading to human insecurities due to illness and deaths in huge numbers caused by the corona virus, unemployment and poverty, illiteracy and learning disablement. This paper looks at the effect of the pandemic on human security in the context of deprivation of education of children during the pandemic, which is tantamount to deprivation of capabilities. This serious problem may be solved using the Capability approach of Nobel laureate, Prof. Amartya Sen, whereby the combination of individual characteristics, access to resources and the lived environment interact to affect a person’s opportunity to be and do the things they value, in this case, to be educated.



Human Security As A Prerequisite To State Security In The 21St Century


Devaki Nandan


Research Scholar, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal Central University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand


Human security reinvigorates comprehensive solutions to human survival and development. It extends the domain and the various notion of security. Human security includes physical security of individuals as well as security against emerging newly non-traditional threats. In the strategic environment of the 21st century, every nation is focusing on an up to the down pattern of security i.e., national security then individual security but in reality, the security lever is down to an up pattern of security i.e., individual security then nations security. It means human security is the precondition to national security.



Human Security Of The Hindu Minorities In Bangladesh Under The Last Regime Of Sheikh Hasina (2019- Till Date)


Sukdev Das


Research Scholar, Adamas University, Kolkata, West Bengal


As we all know Bangladesh is a democratic State, the security and the rights of the minority communities are protected there. Especially under the regime of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and her party Awami League, the religious minority Hindu community is considered much secure. The main object of this study is whether the people of the minority Hindu community in Bangladesh are really safe during Sheikh Hasina’s current 4th term or not. Some existing literature has been surveyed to prepare the study. And data is collected through personal interviews and observations method then it is interpreted to draw the inference. The study shows that the condition of the Human Security of the Hindu minorities in Bangladesh under this current regime is not secured properly. Some of the causes have been identified and several recommendations have been pointed out in this regard.



Human Security: Crucial Component Of India’S National Security Framework


John Thanglalsang Guite


Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi


The Indian National Security framework has for decades been defined with the notions of state security which was and is often equated with hard military power and perceived military threats from our neighboring countries such as China and Pakistan. However, over the years, this country has woken up to the reality of problems and threats derived from unemployment, communal conflicts , ecological problems , new pandemics and the like which are sinister and present themselves as threats to Human security and Human rights for every Indian citizen. The violation of Human rights tantamount to the violation of Human Security and once the security of every citizen is compromised, such can lead to growing resentments from the public and this resentment can transform itself into militancy, thus causing the Indian National Security apparatus to impart the values of Human Security. This is important but how?



Identity And Indignity: An Exploration


Neda Fatima


Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi


This paper is about allegations on Muslims and their institutions in India. The paper arguing that after nineties, Muslim community has been questioned for their religious education in Madrasas and Makatbs that they trained militant or provide training to become anti-nationalist; imposed by several Hindu fundamentalist groups. This situation and identical blame becomes worse for community progress, to show clear and transparent identity after the event of 9/11. The focus of study is to make an effort to generalize the internal truth about Muslims and their institution. Now, it’s become spectacular for the community to improve their identity due to socio-educational and economically backwardness and save themselves from being alleged for any uncivil or terror action. The docility of media to blunting any phenomena has created more hatred for Muslim community across the nation. The paper conclusion is based upon review of various literatures on primary data it is imperative to highlight that nor madrasas neither their students been found in any nefarious and ambivalent work.



Impact Of Article-32 On Human Security


Yogesh. M. S


Assistant Professor, Government First Grade College K.R.Sagara, Karnataka


This paper focus on Human security with Right to Remedy in a broad range of economic, political, social and environmental factors affecting human well-being, livelihood, dignity,survival and safety against violence. Article 32 of the Indian Constitution gives the right to individuals to move to the Supreme Court to seek justice when they feel that their right has been ‘unduly deprived’.Human security can be secured through Judicial Activism; Writs which enforces Human Rights. Article -32 affects and protects every Human being Life and dignity by which it enhance Human Security.The holistic vision of protecting the security of people lends itself to a variety of interpretations shaped by relative understandings of what constitutes a threat to the security of individuals. This paper emphasis on Writs securing the every individuals personal rights



Impact Of Corporate Governance Policies On The Financial Performance Of The Company


Sunil Kumar


Research Scholar, Mahatma Gandhi Central University Motihari, Bihar


Though corporate governance is about commitment to value proposition, normative values and business ethics towards the operational code of conduct of an organisation. It is a set of rules and regulations, processes, conducts and customs that affects the way a company is directed, administrated, controlled and managed their internal as well as external stakeholders in the realm of regulatory body. This is based on the principles of integrity, fairness, equity, transparency, accountability and commitment towards the organisational values and ethics to maintain the status-quo of company goodwill. However the Harshad Mehta Scam (1992) to sathyam scam maked the government role as a watchdog to embrace the companies under the ambit of compliance of law. The purpose of this research paper is to accustom with the impact of corporate governance police on the financial performance of company.



Interpretation Of The Human Rights Laws In The Post-Truth World


Harikrishnan R S


Student, Pondicherry University, Puducherry


Democracy is the major political sphere that gives maximum freedom to its subjects. The presence of adequate rights and duties strengthens the spirit of democracy in its vertex. Among that; human rights are more important and more related to the citizen. Without which, the entire rights are futile and irrelevant. The presence of these rights is weakening the power and political control of the ruling class. But in a political system, ignoring the laws is impossible. However, interpretation is the major tool to challenging these laws and today’s post-truth political realm is the favorable condition to propagate this idea. This paper tries to analyze human rights laws from the perspective of populist political ideas. And also tries to find out the misinterpreting cases of the human-rights laws and how to reduce the sphere of human rights laws with the perspective of national security. The study adopts the qualitative analysis and data collected from both the primary and secondary data.



Issues And Challenges Faced By Women Police In Kashmir


Shamikhah Hamid


Research Scholar , University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Shazia Manzoor


Associate Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Women police play a very important role in every society. They are always there for people in need. The policing job has been traditionally associated with men so it has been dominated by men only. But with the progress, women have entered this field even if in lesser numbers but so far they have survived and done well in the so called male cultured service. The women police personnel face a number of problems at their workplaces, homes and society which are different from a normal working woman as the nature of their job aggravate the intensity of their problems. We have used the qualitative research approach to explore and analyze the problems faced by women police personnel in Kashmir. The study has used interview method for data collection and an inductive thematic analysis has been used for the generation of the results. Two main themes have emerged from the study. The themes along with the respective sub- themes are: 1. Personal challenges (domestic and family responsibilities, lack of family support, role conflict and identity, work-life balance and non-acceptance, physical and mental health implications, and social stigma). 2. Professional challenges (limited opportunity and inter-gender challenges, acceptance by male members, and improper infrastructure facilities) Key Words Women police, challenges



Remedies Under International Trade Law: A Blocked Road For Developing Countries


Sheikh Inam Ul Mansoor


Research Scholar, School of Law and Governance, Rajasthan


The study of remedies under the WTO legal system is closely linked to the concept of state responsibility in international law, which specifies acts that a state is required to undertake or the degree to which a state may be held accountable for any conduct or omission that is unlawful under treaty law or customary international law. International law’s principles of redress complement WTO remedies to the degree that they do not “contract out.” As a result, while looking at WTO remedies, one should begin by looking to international law remedies, namely the well-established concept of state liability under customary and general international law. As a result, we’d have a better grasp on the possible remedies accessible to an aggrieved WTO Member who has violated its responsibilities. If you violate someone’s rights, you may seek retribution from the government by taking legal action. Procedure and substance are two ways to think about remedies. There are two concepts here: first, the process by which injury or violations are heard and decided upon; and second, the outcome of that proceeding, i.e, the relief granted to the successful claimant. General international law or the norms of adjudication in specialised regimes may offer the procedural element of redress. With respect to substantive aspects of remedies sought for violations, the State may seek “termination of the illegal conduct, fulfilment of responsibilities owed, return to pre-breach situations, compensation for damage suffered” or “a declaration of legal right and duty.”



Terrorism And Its Forms In The Present Scenario


Rituraj Basumatary


MPhil Research Scholar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Guwahati, Assam


Terrorism and its forms in the present scenario Rituraj Basumatary MPhil Research Scholar Tata Institute of Social Sciences Guwahati Abstract Terrorism has no universal definition. Some people say that terrorism is a kind of violence related to politics, i.e. political violence. Others say that terrorism means creating fear in the minds of people. Some of the definitions by Indian scholars relates terrorism to gun culture. However in most of the political science textbooks, terrorism has been defined as a threat to human security. Security generally means freedom from any kinds of threat. There are two notions of security, which are traditional security and non-traditional security. Traditional security comes from military threats to one country by another country. Non-Traditional security go beyond military threats to cover a wide range of threats which are affecting the conditions of human existence. Terrorism is rightly a non-traditional security.



Women, Food Security And Governance


Sania Jamal


Research Scholar, Jamia Millia Islamia, University, New Delhi


The Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) and then the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) had already set a challenge to wipe out malnutrition and food insecurity from the world. The world witnessed a high rate of alarming hunger and undernourished people living under extreme poverty and vulnerable conditions. The situation has been triggered more by the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. United Nations (UN) defines food security as ‘availability and accessibility of sufficient nutritious food at all times in a dignified manner’. The role of respective governments and various food related organizations had a very crucial role towards the achievement of full-fledged food and nutritional security. India, from time to time, has initiated its targeted policies and programs to obtain the necessary food security for its citizens. The governance of food security had become more vibrant with the inclusion of women along with the implementation of National Food Security Act 2013 in the country. The paper highlights the importance, issues and challenges related to the food security in India with a special reference to women’s food security.



‘New’ Threats For Human Security: Recent Trends


Priyadarshini Goenka


Student, National Law University, Odisha


The concept of human security has expanded our vision of the notion of security. The impact is easily accessible in terms of direct humanitarian costs of violent conflict wherein no one takes further accountability of indirect social, economic, health-related, and environmental consequences such assessment becomes much more complicated. The shift in focus from the initial state to the individual as the core object acknowledges the fact that intra-state conflicts including civil wars, political violence, diseases, or poverty are otherwise considered as greater threats to humans than inter-state wars. However, the concept has not brought a paradigm shift in terms of international security policy. But human security is most likely to remain within the parameters of political relevance even after recent changes in its strategic framework. Addressing the diversified nature of threats to human security concerns requires the development of a more comprehensive and logically consistent understanding of human security.



A Study Of Human Rights Of Transgender


Dr. Priyadarshini Purohit


Assistant Professor, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan


Sakshi Rathi


Research Scholar, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan


Security plays a vital element in human lives as it provides a sense of certainty and assurance to live a peaceful and dignified life. Just like national security is regarded as a duty of the government to prevent and safeguard its national boundaries and its citizenry, human security is also now given a centre of attention due to the widespread hardship humans are being subjected to. Though, the adoption of Universal Declaration of Human Rights set out a legal obligation on states to ensure that humans are not denied the basic human rights inherent to all of us. Despite such protection and legal obligations transgender is one such marginalized community, who are still struggling to get recognized as humans. There is no universal definition of transgender but however in general parlance those individuals whose personal characteristics, appearance and behavior fall outside the stereotypical gender norms are considered as transgender. Within this context this article aims to analyze the prejudicial treatment the transgender community in India is grappling with and how such these deliberative and discriminatory practices instigate an attack on their human security.






Health And Governance


Dr. Babu Lal Devanda


HoD, Department of Political Science, Agarwal P. G. College Jaipur Rajasthan


For better understanding the challenges in governing healthcare providers, it is useful to extend the governance debate beyond the service provider models to health financing and funding structures (amongst many other aspects like pharmaceuticals, teaching, research, etc). This aspects had been deliberately left out by Saltman and Duran, while acknowledging their importance.Regardless of how funds are collected and pooled, any publicly organized financing scheme faces the challenge of “prudent purchasing,”ie, how to spend the available means in a way that satisfies concerns around responsiveness, quality, equity and efficiency while preserving clinical autonomy and allowing for developing innovative forms of diagnosis and treatment. Governing fund pooling, resource allocation, health service purchasing, together with health service provision is an important element in achieving such critical, and, at times, conflicting aims.There is an intense debate about how a governance model for providers might look like.We strongly believe the prevailing logic of neoliberalism with its promise of more efficiency and stipulating a major role for market-oriented healthcare does not mean to leave the markets alone but rather requires strong governance arrangements. Focussing on efficiency and treating the patient as a customer has an important role in many standard healthcare encounters, especially those which are non-acute and non-life-threatening – a fact that the medical profession still struggles to accept. It is here, where approaches like “performance-based payments” might be put to a good use. Where appropriate (and measurable), paying for high quality care can help in developing a culture of quality and fostering innovation and collaboration. However, effectiveness, empathy and professional dedication remains a non-substitutable priority in case of emergency and acute care, assigning cost-savings a lower priority. This is where market forces can be destructive. Appeals only to the rational “economic man” within the clinician and fostering self-interest by paying bonuses for achieving targets might actually damage the motivational fabric of those providing care and finding reward from being intrinsically motivated.If I pay a doctor for immunizing children but not for counselling the mothers, I will affect the way this doctor is allocating his time, disconcerting health outcomes.



Academic Stress, Emotional Intelligence And Mental Health In Relation To Scholastic Achievements Among Medical & Engineering Students And Governmental Response


Basit Javeed Qureshi


Research Scholar, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


In today’s highly competitive world, medical and engineering students face various academic problems including exam stress, disinterest in attending classes and inability to understand the subject. Academic stress has been identified as a detrimental issue across various countries culture and ethnic groups. The increase in stress has given rise to various mental health concerns where these students report increased anxiety, depression and even suicidal ideations. Certain levels of academic stress is known to push students towards performing well; commonly known as eustress, if it is not managed well and exceeds the optimum level it can have direct consequences for the students as well as the institution. At medical and engineering colleges there is a range of academic pressure feel, derived from a need for perfection, worry over grades, parental pressure, competition and a tough class load. The academic stress will directly have impact on the scholastic achievement of aforementioned students. There is a strong relationship between the emotional intelligence with anxiety and the stress. There should be strong discussion on what happens to the emotional intelligence when there is increase in academic stress among professional students. The situation caused by academic stress and its impact on medical and engineering students is alarming and it is high time to streamline the governmental policies and strategies regarding them.



Addressing The Impact Of Climate Change On Human Security


Nirupama A. K.


Research Scholar, University of Kerala, Kerala


The most challenging threats like climate change have impacted the livelihoods of millions of people across the globe. Climate change is a “threat multiplier” and essentially a human and national security risk. The complex causes and consequences of climate change require comprehensive, integrated strategies that identify entry points for collaborative action to mitigate its impacts on people. Governments along with civil society organisations have attained massive responsibilities in this situation. By placing people at the centre, the human security approach encourages broad participation that provides detailed insights into the varying challenges faced by different groups within communities and regions. The human security framework helps international, national and local actors to better coordinate responses to climate change. This paper will focus on the aspects related to governance mechanisms and climate change in the human security context in general and also specifically on India.



Apprehending The Plight Of Women During The Conflicts- A Study Of Khushwant Singh'S 'Delhi- A Novel


Nancy Paul


Assistant Professor, CT University Ludhiana, Punjab


Priyanka Marwaha


Research Scholar, CT University Ludhiana, Punjab


Conflicts and wars ruin lives, families, livelihoods, and the economy, but most importantly, it threatens gender security. It disproportionately affects young girls and women making them more susceptible to all kinds of violence and exploitation. This paper critically analyses men's debasing and lascivious attention towards young girls and women during the war and how they have been reduced to mere sexual objects in Khushwant Singh's Delhi A Novel. The chosen novel is Singh's fourth work- an extensively irreverent magnum opus on Delhi's becoming and unbecoming over the centuries. After a thorough reading of the selected text, relevant quotations and passages have been cited as textual evidence. the research findings indicate that the text understudy affirms that men have brutally assaulted and suppressed female characters in the novel time and again to establish their masculine powers.



Beekeeping - Its Bearing On Human Security, Eliminating Poverty In The Path Of Sdgs In North East Region, India


Dr Sukamal Deb


Dy Chief Executive Officer, North East Region In-charge, Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Ministry of Micro Small Medium Enterprises, Government of India


Efforts to alleviate of poverty, keeping ethos of sustainable development goals (SDGs) have bearing towards Human Security. Beekeeping is an activity that can address couple of SDGs. It includes eliminating poverty, organizing climate action. We study the impact of beekeeping programme of KVIC in North East Region(NER), India based on primary and secondary data. It can go long way in augmenting income and is gaining popularity worldwide. Honey Bees are nature’s most industrious and fascinating creature. Rapid deforestation is a threat to them. Beekeeping is an industry with so many benefits, it increases the yields of crops and helps in maintenance of ecological balance. Assuming Sustainable Development path it supplements organic farming. It reduces poverty, hunger and helps reducing gender inequality. Beekeeping encourages ecological awareness and maintenance of biodiversity. It has special relevance for NER.



Border Studies: Human Security Perspective Of Indo-Nepal Borderlands


Shailen Verma


Assistant Professor, Dr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh University, Uttar Pradesh


Most of the nation-states are authoritarian-developmental in nature. These states are heavily contested in borderlands spaces on the issue of nationality, securitization, and citizen-state control. Therefore, in the post-globalized period, borders redefined the national interests, relationship with neighbors, and raised questions about mobilities and security in the region. In this context, the present study highlights some of these processes and interactions taking place at the periphery of the state. The idea of a ‘border zone’ or ‘borderlands’ is not monitored by arms, military-police power, though, a support zone constrained by a few monitoring operators. The occupation of territory is fundamental to state sovereignty and nationality. But exclusive command over territory also implies the unwillingness to share it with ‘others’. The state creates its markers within which its ‘self’ disengages from the ‘alien’. Patterns of borderland divided into two general categories; 1. National Borderland (Alienation) 2. Transnational Borderland (Co-existence) At certain historical junctures, these markers are called ‘frontiers’, ‘boundaries’, and ‘borders’ (Samaddar, 2008). This study finds shape in totality by combining all elements and identified as ‘Model of Borderland Milieu’ (Martinez, 1994).



Challenges Of Women’s Security During Covid Scenario In Rural Areas Of Kamrup District, Assam


Chinmoyee Borpujari


Assistant Professor, Mariani College, Assam


In the current scenario, the global pandemic has led to many challenges in socio economic sector of the society. COVID-19 has not left any part of the world untouched and India is one of the worst affected countries in the world. It is well-documented that during a natural disaster or a pandemic, domestic violence against women is already widespread and under-reported in India. Now, at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, the United Nations recognises domestic violence against women as a “shadow pandemic”. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a huge spike in domestic violence against women in many countries worldwide and India is not an exception to it. The National Commission for Women has reported a large increase in distress calls from victims of domestic violence since the pandemic broke out. The present study is an attempt to study the problems relating to the violence and threat to security faced by women population of the rural areas of Kamrup district, Assam during the COVID-19 pandemic scenario and to explore necessary steps toward mitigation of this challenges.



Child Security Threats: Recent Trends


Dr. Seema Ojha


Assistant Professor, Govt. Maharani Sudarshana Girls College, Bikaner, Rajasthan


Dr. Shraddha


Assistant Professor, Govt. Maharani Sudarshana Girls College, Bikaner, Rajasthan


With the fast paced development of everything around us, the children today are being exposed to much more than what they were before. Be it social media, early childhood development, premature brain development, it is believed that due to this fast paced development, they are facing issues every day. While the children of the well off families face the issues of cyber bullying leading them to feeling insecure, isolation from their parents and being too involved with social media, the children of the poor families are worse off. Along with these issues, they also face the problems because of the lack of a proper medium of education, poverty leading to malnutrition and under development, lack of money leading them to turn to the world of crime and underworld. Also, the lack of support from families has been seen as the major issue that leads to a feeling of insecurity and disorientation in the minds of children of both the genders. Discrimination and harmful practices against the girl child vary depending upon cultural context. For instance, intentional abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide are common practices in East and South Asian countries where sons are strongly preferred. India and China have a significant sex-ratio imbalance in their populations as a result of these practices, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, 2005). In India such practices are reinforced by the perception that daughters are an economic burden on the family. They do not significantly contribute to the family income and large dowries may be expected by in-laws when the girl marries. In China, sex selectivity and abandonment of infant girls have increased dramatically since the enactment of the one-child policy in 1989. Prenatal sex selection is more common where modern medical technology is readily accessible and open to misuse. According to the UNFPA 2004 report, sex-selective abortion and female infanticide have resulted in at least 60 million “missing” girls in Asia. The shortage of females in some Asian countries has led to other problems, such as increased trafficking in women for marriage and sex work. Despite government programs and efforts to end such practices with education, financial incentives and threat of punishment, sex-selective abortion and female infanticide continue.



Community Participation Through Ecotourism: Assessing State And Non-State Governance In The Umswai Valley Of Assam


Koumudi Mahanta


Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi


Ecotourism has emerged as a prominent word in the twenty-first century that seeks to bring together local communities, sustainable practices and awareness for the conservation of nature. In the past few years, the northeastern states of India in general and Assam in particular has seen both the state and non-state actors taking initiatives in a myriad of ways to facilitate tourism as well as empower local populations in the region. Scholars like Sanjiv Baruah, V. K. Kumar and others have noted how there exists a new form of governance entailing these initiatives. Situating itself within these debates, the present paper would try to understand the ongoing process of building the Umswai Valley in Assam as an upcoming ecotourism destination. It adopts a critical look at tourism and community participation to explore how they are tied to larger issues of rights, human security, social justice, to name a few.



Corporate Governance & “Saam-Daam-Dand-Bhed” Policy Of Kautilya


Sandeip Khakase


Visiting Faculty, Amity Institute of Liberal Arts, Mumbai, Maharashtra


‘Ex fida bona’, Corporate Governance, a buzzword of 21st Century, mainly revolves around the application of ethical practices for protecting the interests of all stakeholders. The concept, though emerged in the west, has spread across the globe in the last three decades, and India is not an exception. India, a country of sages, has not only contributed to humanities and philosophies, but also to administration and management; ‘Kautilya’, also known as ‘Chanakya’ or ‘Vishnugupta’ has been claimed to be ‘Management Guru’ for proposing administrative principle (‘Niti’) in his treatise “Arthashastra”. Inter alia, “Saam Daam Danda Bhed” principle of Kautilya which means “conciliation-gifts-punishment-divide and rule” has been credited for its applicability and contemporary relevance. With this literature review based paper coupled with empirical research, a humble attempt is made to understand one of the pivotal principles of Kautilya, “Saam Daam Dand Bhed” in respect to Corporate Governance. “Saam Daam Danda Bhed” principle, does it lack moral or ethical aspects?, could be incorporated in the business? and whether such practices will be accepted under corporate governance principles? These questions are tried to be answered.



Corruption-Human Security-Governance Nexus : Does Human Development Matter?


Sneha Singh


Assistant Professor, St. Xavier's University, Kolkata, West Bengal


Sovik Mukherjee


Assistant Professor, St. Xavier's University, Kolkata, West Bengal


Without the effective presence of good governance mechanisms, people can’t fully participate i.e. human security gets compromised, and unless people and communities are empowered to let their voices be heard or to participate in decision-making, good governance is not possible and hence there is a possibility that corruption might go unabated – the trivariate nexus. The main objective of the paper is to relate this trivariate nexus with the level of human development for a mix of 100 developed-developing and under-developed countries. In this backdrop, based on a panel data set-up between 2010-2020 for this cross-country mix, the paper identifies that corruption (measured by Corruption Perceptions Index), human security (measured by Human Security Index) and governance (measured by Worldwide Governance Indicators) have significant effect on human development (measured by inequality adjusted HDI) and the direction of the causality runs from the focus variables to human development.



Covid-19 Pandemic And Governance: Issues And Challenges In India


Arshad Bhat


Post-Doctoral Research Associate. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Kashmir


This study assessed implications of the Coronavirus pandemic on key parameters of Indian Economy by using the data set of STATISTA. Results show that the economy experienced several shocks and setbacks due to the COVID-19 crisis. Food security and dietary quality worsened, as measured by the food insecurity experience scale and the frequency of consumption of nutritionally-rich foods. The income of the people has deteriorated by several percentage points, the unemployment has crossed the 7.5 benchmark, the exports have decreased, inflation has crossed the limits, production had decreased, GDP has worsened than ever in the country, and health infrastructure has exposed the tall claims of the government. The study reveals that the income-poor households and those dependent on labour income were more vulnerable to income shock, and had poorer food consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to other respondent categories. As such, they were more likely to employ food-based coping strategies compared to those pursuing alternative livelihoods, who generally relied on savings. Farmers were less likely to experience worsened food security compared to other respondent categories who depended to a great extent on market sources for food. The study suggest that ongoing and future government responses should focus on structural changes in social security by developing responsive packages to cushion members pushed into poverty by such pandemics while building strong financial institutions to support the recovery of businesses in the medium term



Covid-19 Pandemic And It’S Impact On Migrant Workers’ Livelihood: An Observation On India


Manas Kumar Behera


Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi


The worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease called COVID-19 was first reported from Wuhan in China in December 2019. The COVID-19 transmission has been spared rapidly, that attributed to unprecedented migration and creation of a catastrophic situation. Within a span of time, most of the countries came under the COVID-19 contamination. It not only affected the health condition but also severely impacted the State’s economy, trade, travel, transport, education, and infrastructure development. In order to prevent the spread of Coronavirus, the Govt of India had used lockdown as a preventive measure. Though the imposition of lockdown has positively given the success to maintain social distance and mass gathering, at the same time, it has brought a negative impact on the socio-economic livelihoods of migrant workers. Being daily wage workers, they have depended on daily paid work, which was stopped during the lockdown period. Due to the lack of income sources and travel restrictions, they have faced a lot of difficulties in terms of food insecurity, economic stress, lack of health care, and price rising has affected the migrant workers basic amenities. This paper is intended to study the impact of COVID-19 on the socio-economic life of the migrant worker and evaluate the pro-active role of Govt to mitigate these issues. This study has tried to explore the problems critically in the efforts of Govt to tackle the crisis.



Cyber Security Awareness Of Students Pursuing Higher Education: A Case Study Survey Of New Alipore College


Dr Amartya Saha


Assistant Professor, New Alipore College, Kolkata, West Bengal


The pandemic forced an unforeseen lockdown in different places across the world. In India, the lockdown extended in phases as the situation unfolded with its own complexities. Higher Educational Institutions across India and the world shifted to an online pedagogy. The challenges were unique in India. There was first a necessity of access, for the students and teachers to be online from home. There was also an urgent need to adopt to an online teaching-learning process. The education system in Higher Education Institutions across the world deal with sensitive data about students, their results, curriculum, and a safe and secure environment is essential for the smooth functioning of online education. The students are one of the most important stakeholders of the Higher Educational Institutes. This calls for a need to assess the awareness of cyber security among students pursing Higher Education in these institutes. Without developing a sense of cyber security hygiene, the students would be left vulnerable to the security threats. Case study survey research has been conducted in an undergraduate college in Kolkata, New Alipore College. 556 students from the college took the survey. The research paper focuses on finding out whether the students have basic cybersecurity awareness. It tries to find out if the students take active steps to protect themselves online. It also tries to understand if the students verify information that they receive online. The findings of this study will help us understand the cybersecurity challenges in Higher Educational Institutions in India from the student’s perspective.



Data Driven Policy-Making And Digital Governance For Enhancing Human Security In India


Dr. Gyana Ranjan Panda


Assistant Professor, Central University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan


Since 2014, there is noticeably change in the way public service delivery and programmatic interventions have been conducted in India. The guiding mantra of “minimum governance and maximum governance” under Modi Government have brought the data-driven policy making into focus which have limited the administrative discretions, political paternalism and corruptions as regards to public service delivery to beneficiaries. India has always confronted with the multi-dimensional challenges of human security and governance failures as regards to citizen ability to reduce poverty, effective utilisation of public provisioning, and unleashing capabilities as regards to livelihood opportunities. The lack of adequate data and evidences have had huge role in precipitating such challenges. In the ages of big data and rapid digitalisation of Indian society, the policy making discourses have been reinvigorated towards primacy of data driven policy-making and governances. The Economic Survey (2018-19) in the Chapter Four articulated the applicability of big-data in big way from citizen perspectives by paraphrasing the title as the “Data of the People, by the People and for the People”. It is a welcome embrace of data-driven policymaking and development process in enhancing human security Indian economy. The data deluge generated at the unprecedented scale both at the national and international level underlines the need for treating data as the “public good” (Economic Survey: 81). The use of big-data as core policy tool intends to help in the effective programme implementation and bringing the service delivery at citizens and beneficiary doorsteps. The paper, while recognizing need for the overwhelming data uses, attempts to demystify the concept of big-data, establishes the interlinkages with public policy and digital governance in India while addressing human security and governance issues in the country.



Deterring The ‘Boat People’: The Domestic And Regional Dimensions Of Australia’S Policy Towards Asylum Seekers


Biplab Debnath


Assistant Professor, Tripura University, Tripura


Uncontrollable movement of people resulting from conflicts, political oppression or economic hardships is one of the most pressing challenges plaguing the international community today. Consequently, nation-states’ response to such challenges followed from a redefinition of insecurity from a state-centric to a non-state centric one. This has been the case with Australia, as there has been a reconceptualisation of source of insecurity from nations to people, with asylum seekers, or what is referred to as the 'boat people, dominating the country’s discourse on protecting its borders. For Australia, such conceptions also have a strong historical continuity of deep-rooted anxieties from the fear of the foreigners as evident from exclusionary policies of ‘White Australia’ to recent assertions of the nation’s exclusive sovereignty over the refugee intake. In this regard, the paper will examine Australia’s response to asylum seekers from the domestic and regional levels. The paper seeks to place Australia’s deterrence policy and its domestic politicisation of the “asylum seeker” in the context of human rights conventions and the notion of ‘good international citizenship.



Economic Tools Derived From Plants To Face Bioterrorism


Arti Ghabru


Assistant Professor, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Thunag Mandi, Himachal Pradesh


Whether naturally occurring or man-made, biological threats pose an unadorned risk in world. Biological warfare agents may be more compelling than conventional and chemical weapons. During the past era, the progress made in biotechnology and biochemistry has simplified the development and production of such weapons. Plant biosystems are easy to scale up and inexpensive, and they do not require refrigeration or a sophisticated medical infrastructure. Regarding the context, the implementation of plant-made biopharmaceuticals in the developing world is an unescapable event. At the same time, it is fundamental to invest in technical platforms able to cut down the time to tailor the eventual vaccine candidate to be effective to the epidemic. Plant Molecular Farming and improved genetic vaccines capable of plant sequences with immune-modulating activity, represent two promising approaches for the rapid and affordable production of countermeasures against emerging and bioterrorism-related infections.



Education And E-Governance:A Sustematic Literature Review


Dr.Ruchi Jain


Associate Professor, IIS (Deemed to be University), Jaipur, Rajasthan


Governance is the utilizing of economical,political and managerial expert in all level of a country's management. It incorporates the components, cycles and organizations through which residents intercede their disparities, articulate their interests and exercise their freedoms and commitment. Simultaneously, today PC(personal computer) helped correspondence is assimilated by the institutions for both conventional as well as distant education and it is dispersed from one side of the planet to the other. Hence in this research paper two significant issues education and e-governance are talked about and an attempt has been made to undertake a detailed study of several research papers published during the past several years on e- governance and education. The examination adopts a systematic approach to review the published research papers and review has been performed on the basis of several factors such as year of publication,journal where paper is published and conclusions drawn. This literature analysis helps to recognize the important research space in the selected field.



Educational Service Delivery: Role Of Common Service Centres ( Cscs) In Changing Rural Society In To A Digitally Empower Society


Dr Sunita Chaudhary


Post Doctoral Fellow (ICSSR), University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan


Educational Service Delivery : Role of Common Service Centres (CSCs) in Changing Rural Society in to a Digitally Empower Society Dr. Sunita Choudhary Post Doctoral Fellow (ICSSR) Department of Political Science University of Rajasthan, Jaipur Email: Mobile : 9828267854 India has the world's largest population in the age group of 5 to 24 years. It has more than fifty crore people in the age group of 25 to 59 years, which constitutes the working population and is expected to continuously increase even as the world's working population ages and diminishes. The phenomenon will make India a supplies of workforce to the entire world. In the wake of this reality, the Indian education system should therefore be able to produce a workforce which is glob ally competitive and thus reap its demographic dividend. The common service centres (CSCs) can play a major role in enhancing the spread of education and producing an employable workforce in India. The focus of this paper is on the use of CSCs in educational service delivery in Rural Areas.



E-Governance And Education : A Systematic Literature Review


Jyoti Jain


Research Scholar, IIS(Deemed to be University), Jaipur, Rajasthan


Governance is the utilizing of economical, political and managerial expert in all level of a country's management. It incorporates the components, cycles and organizations through which residents intercede their disparities, articulate their interests and exercise their freedoms and commitment. Simultaneously, today PC(personal computer) helped correspondence is assimilated by the institutions for both conventional as well as distant education and it is dispersed from one side of the planet to the other. Hence in this research paper two significant issues education and e-governance are talked about and an attempt has been made to undertake a detailed study of several research papers published during the past several years on e- governance and education. The examination adopts a systematic approach to review the published research papers and review has been performed on the basis of several factors such as year of publication,journal where paper is published and so on.This literature analysis helps to recognize the important research space in the selected field.



Empowering Transgender People In Post-Independent Odisha: A Study On Policy Perspective


Subhasandhya Sahoo


Research Scholar, Gangadhar Meher University, Sambalpur, Odisha


The globalized world has been marked with high development in every aspect; still, some sections remain in invisible form. In the developmental and egalitarian society, the question is always raised whether every section in the society get respectful life or not? Transgender people are one of the discriminated sections which are continuously struggling for their existence. There is a need to realize their inherent capability and provide the scope to develop their skill. The government has taken various progressive policies but has failed to change the outlook and attitude towards transgender people. So, as long as social identity and recognition are not practised in reality in transgender's life, the legal recognition and welfare policies become meaningless. In this paper, the researcher has focused on various social security policies taken by the Odisha government in the post-independent era to empower transgender people. The study tried to put Iris Marion young's social justice framework and Amartya Sen's capability approach to understand the empowerment of transgender people and adopted an opportunity and scope-based model instead of only focusing on the right based approach. This paper also critically analyses the efforts taken by the Odisha government, the problem behind the existence of social security policies, and the other initiatives required to empower the transgender people in Odisha. In this paper, the researcher intends to achieve a fair, equal and prosperous society by providing equal voice and participation opportunities. So, inclusive policies and programs can ensure dignity, liberty, equality and freedom for transgender people.



Engendered Environmental Peacebuilding In Tibet, Northeast India And Bangladesh


Vani Bhardwaj


Postgraduate Student, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi


The paper delineates the simultaneous construction of nature and that of British colonial governance in the Northeast, being its frontier. Concomitantly, the developmental strategy of postcolonial Indian state marginalizes the various crosscutting gendered identities in the region, leading to emergence of post-development narratives at the grassroots. Environmental conflicts being one of the exacerbating drivers of conflict, ethnic-gendered identities need to be the analytical lenses in environmental peacebuilding across transnational region of Tibetan Plateau, Northeast India and Bangladesh, in specific light of the looming water conflicts in the transnational geopolitical space. In this template, through the lens of Women Environment Development (WED) and post-development, the paper concludes that the subaltern feminism of indigenous women remains marginalized as the primary modality in climate resilient peacebuilding and conflict mitigation measures in policy circles and needs to be advanced further. The paper concludes with methods and strategies to induce sustainable peace and conflict resolution.



Environmental Degradation Endangering Human Security: The South Asian Context


Dr Alka R Gupta


Associate Professor, Udai Pratap College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh


Environmental Degradation Endangering Human Security: The South Asian Context Dr Alka R Gupta Associate Professor and Head Department of Political Science Udai Pratap College, Varanasi. Email: Security is the primary drive behind the creation of state. Although the varieties of threats (external and internal) determine the security and insecurity of the nations but the view of their security is generally colored by their perception of threats and effectiveness. Military security threatens the state while human security threatens the survival and well being of each and every individual directly and indirectly both. Environmental Degradation is one of the biggest issues facing the world today that no nation can resolve alone survival of the human race at stake. The South Asian region’s volatile geological situation and high degree of mutual distrust and the potential for environmental degradation make it very much prone to various kinds of South Asia is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters, and a significant portion is exposed to more than one type of hazard. The nature is a common treasure of humanity and be consumed according to the spirit of sharing and caring and enough ought to be left for future generation while not forgetting nothing is beyond human Endeavour. There is an urgent need to make an all round comprehensive effort to immediately check environmental degradation ensuring the safety and wellbeing of mankind.



Gender Inclusion :Shift In Designing Policy


Suman Maurya


Assistant Professor, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan


Gender has a wide range of primary expressions. Gender studies is a broad interdisciplinary project different behavior associated with men and women betray the ideological underpinning of socialization into culturally specific understandings of family femininity and masculinity. Feminist Epistemology has been defined that vary from women's way of knowing or women knowledge to a more gender inclusive feminist knowledge to a more disciplinary a specific policy and gender have a contested relationship in western democracies. Declared goal is gender blind  policy and gender neutrality is embraced as a means to that end. A conventional and functional understanding of the policy process is that it involves well considered legislative and legal responses to social problem and social needs. The domain is public decision-making to regulate public activities citizens private lives are considered to be their own. gender becomes something to be bracketed off in designing policy. Re-visioning gender is the key shift from conceptualizing gender as an individual trait to focusing on gender as a principle of social organization. Neutrality means equal treatment of these two groups gender mainstreaming or gender sidelining is a shift in approach to institutional change. Gendering Democracy is a way of actualizing the principle of equality, solidarity justice and fairness which are part of union ideology.



Gender Security In Domestic Sphere: Issue & Challenges


Shreya Sharma


Research Scholar, University Of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh


United Nation Security Council 1325 on 31 October 2000 recalled commitments of Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action as well as outcome document of twenty third session of United Nations General Assembly titled “Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for twenty first century”. It reaffirmed important role of women at decision making level in prevention of conflict and peace building and participation of women in maintenance and promotion of peace and security. It needs to be underlined that UN Security Council consolidates data on impact of armed conflict on women and children including refugees and internally displaced persons. In Indian perspective, after two decades United Nation adopted landmark women, peace and security (WPS) agenda, India along with other countries are yet to develop WPS women action plan. Even after two decades, India is far from adopting national action plan. It can be argued that the absence of National Action Plan in this context within India likely happened because of its long-standing concerns about international community violating its sovereignty. The paper addresses such issues within the broader context of gender, security and governance.



Good Governance Through Skill Development And Its Success Rate With Respect To Employment And Income Generation


Boby Narayan


Research Scholar, Rabindra Nath Tagore University, Madhya Pradesh


Pay is cash procured by an individual or a business in return for work, the arrangement of an item or administration, or the speculation of capital. An annuity, an administration installment, or a gift can all add to an individual's pay. In any event, when the economy is progressing admirably, unemployment is an issue that continually comes. Unemployment keeps the economy from arriving at its full result potential. Work will ascend because of the inundation of new organizations and expanded open positions. Individuals will have more pay to spend. India's expertise advancement programs across five states, acquiring new abilities can raise pay by 21% and preparing programs support work rates for ladies more than guys, regardless of ladies procuring 20% not exactly their male partners. Monetary development, pay dispersion, and conveyance changes all influence neediness lightening. Both development and pay dispersion can be affected by administration. The predominant market-upgrading administration worldview intends to further develop market effectiveness through 'great administration' changes, apparently to animate or support development. Spreading your revenue streams is an incredible way to deal with get more cash-flow while bringing down your danger. There are an assortment of ways of bringing in cash contingent upon your range of abilities and the schedule you can work. We can say that the nature of work for gifted specialists has additionally improved, with a significant number of them getting position contracts, admittance to a benefits plan, and an ordinary 8-hour work day. The MGNREGA has started a great cycle for the strengthening of the poor by reacting to individuals' fights about destitution by acquainting a right-based methodology with neediness lightening as arrangement of rustic work ensure under India's established design



Good Governance: Protection Of Child Rights


Sanagavarapu Tejasri


Research Scholar, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Deemed to be University, Andhra Pradesh


Children are the future custodians of sovereignty, rule of law, - justice, liberty, equality, fraternity and finally international peace and security. They are the potential embodiment of our ideals, aspirations, ambitions, future hopes. On a position where children were treated as non-entity and where conscientious efforts have been made to not only make them free from exploitation and abuses but also enable them to develop their full potentiality with fair access to food, health, education and respect. The UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child which is the first international treaty that defines the basic rights of the children. A Safe Childhood is a human right. They are recruited into armed forces. They are subjected to the death penalty, are disappeared, are punished by cruel and inhuman methods and suffer many other forms of violence. The aim of this study is to critically evaluate how effectively the child rights violation can be prevented and to provide the needed directions to the parents and Government about their responsibilities to guarantee the rights of the child and also to reduce the vulnerability of children in harmful situations.



Green Technology And Sustainable Development: Emerging Trends Of Electric Cars.


Nutan Marian Tigga


Assistant Professor, Jadavpur University, West Bengal


Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emissions, which cause global warming, have become a major worldwide concern with ten global ‘mega’ challenges that are currently impacting the planet in particular climate change, water, energy, and material resource scarcity. Increase in urbanization rate will continue to increase its need for natural resources, building materials, power and electricity, water. In the present scenario, green technologies are playing significant role in changing the course of nation’s economic growth towards sustainability and providing an alternative socio-economic model that will enable present and future generations to live in a clean and healthy environment, in harmony with nature. Green technology, which is also known as clean technology, refers to the development and extension of processes, practices, and applications that improve or replace the existing technologies facilitating society to meet their own needs while substantially decreasing the impact of human on the planet, and reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. This paper will focus on the electric cars and how their conception in reality is changing the course of fuel emission, saving energy, its impact on environment and sustainable development.



Half-Widows In Kashmir: The Victims Of Conflict & Society


Dr. Anjum Ara Shamim


Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Imran Ahmad Khan


Research Scholar, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


The armed conflict in Jammu & Kashmir has given rise to a category of women called as 'Half-widows'. These are women whose husbands have gone missing in the on-going armed conflict of over thirty years now, in the region. This paper presents a picture of economic, legal, social and psychological implications of half-widowhood in the cultural context of the region. It focuses on their experience of loss, ostracism and stigma faced by them, and their struggle for survival and justice.




Health Care System In India


N. Rojarani


Research Scholar, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh


Matam Siva Linga Murthy


Research Scholar, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh


According to our Indian constitution right to health is the basic fundamental right it will distributes to everyone equally there is no discrimination under the constitution. The constitution recognized that the health of all people is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest cooperation of individuals and states. But after the Covid-19 pandemic the scenario changed. We can divide two things here before Covid -19 and after the covid-19, After Covid-19 general public is giving priority to money instead of giving responsibility towards the other, in this case Covid -19 is not just a public crisis but also a humanitarian crisis. Based on this I am going to concentrate on few of the issues which is relating to the health and governance. what is the health care system we adopted, how efficiently it’s working and how effectively we are implementing the health care polices and measures, what constitute good health, how it is delivered and by whom, how much we are spending the amount only for health care sector. These are issues we are going to deal in my main paper. While implementing the health care as a proper manner we need to adopt few important things one responsibility, 2nd resilient and fair.



Human Security & Good Governance


Dr. Pratima Bhardwaj

Assistant Professor, Political Science, L.B.S. PG College Jaipur


After more than 50 years of independence, India’s achievements in regard to life expectancy, literacy, health, and poverty alleviation compares unfavourably with many other developing countries. This paper analyses the processes of deregulation, liberalization, and new economic reforms undertaken in India as a response to the World Bank prescription of globalization and competitiveness since 1991. The paper also examines the impact of these policies on the problems of governance and administrative reforms, and to what extent the emerging system of governance and economic reforms has been successful in alleviating poverty, reducing unemployment, and providing welfare activities - the necessary ingredients towards promoting human security. Finally, some policy strategies are suggested for adoption in India to meet the challenges of governance and to promote human security in the context of globalisation and liberalisation of the economy.



Human Security And Contributions Of Indian Space Programme


Baruna Kumar Behera


Assistant Professor, Khallikote Unitary University, Berhampur, Odisha


Human security stands for freedom from fear and freedom from want. The concept of human security encompasses traditional as well as new versions of security. Freedom from fear denotes physical security of a state while freedom from want stands for fulfillment of minimum economic necessity. The idea of human security came to the forefront in 1990s after the end of cold war; however it can be observed that Indian Space Research Organisation has been dedicated to this philosophy since its inception. Human security is nothing but a smart version of security encompassing both defence and development dimensions of security. Space programme of India has been capable to serve defence and development needs of India, thereby contributing to the ability of India in ensuring human security of its citizens. This paper seeks to analyze development and defence capability of space programme of India, which has created a unique position for India in the comity of nations



Human Security And Gender; Commonalities And Contradictions


Mohd Rafiq Noveroz


Research Scholar, Department of Political Science, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


The traditional model of National Security has neglected the threats that have emerged from the different socio-economic and political sources within the traditional state-system that women encounter daily in their lives .Human security approach questions the exclusive conceptualization of military security perpetuated by the dominant realist theory of international relations. Feminists have embraced the human security approach for the challenges it poses to the traditional State security model but they argue that it has not comprehensively addressed women's issues.This paper looks at the Commonalities and differences that human security theorists and feminists have on the issue of gender and will see if their differences can be reconciled for better policy recommendations.



Human Security And Governance An Analysis


Dr Megha Kumari


Assistant Professor, Sahibganj College Sabibganj, Jharkhand


Human security has been a very broad and debatable topic. Although its universal study was strengthened by the Human Development Report of 1994. The main contribution of which is believed to be Pakistani economist Mehboob-ul-Haq and Indian economist Amartya Sen. The purpose of the present research paper is to analyze the various dimensions of human security such as social security, economic security, health security, environmental security, group security, political security and to analyze the reasons for the absence of security in the context of government and government policies. Through which it will be possible to shed light on the possible challenges before human security and important suggestions that can be proposed to ensure human security. The basis of the study of the present research paper will be the source and the research method will be descriptive and empirical.



Human Security And International Organizations


Manju Thakur


Assistant Professor, Rana Pratap P.G college Sultanpur


International organizations play an important role to secure human security. Today due to global,warming terrorism, natural calamities,humanity have to suffer a lot.Internataional organization play whital role to save human being form these assaults.Somalia, siycalon, Angola easter Timor, Nir Caryna, Rawanda etc.In these countries for the establishment of peace and human security cannot has performed so much to mutual misunderstanding conflicts and competition between different nations of the world human security became much necessary as to reduce these differences and make sure to secure human security International organization and organ of U.N.O play an important role.To promote positive environment throughout the world enhancing peaceful conference and meeting of various nations organised by international definitely Organisation promote Human security.



Human Security And Religion- A Case Of Kashmiri Pandits


Dr. Sunita Bhola & Noopur Jha


Assistant Professor, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Uttarakhand


While the entire Country apprehends the implication of Citizenship amendment Act, special interest groups protest against it citing reasons of exclusion and religious intolerance. However, the same special interest group resorts to an unjustified silence when the subject of dislocated Kashmiri Pandits comes up. This can rightly be called the worst case of religious intolerance and exclusion. The evacuation of Kashmiri Pandits is a tragic blow of profanity. For over three decades now, the community of Kashmiri Pandits have tried to forget the horrific treatment meted to them and their predecessors. Settled in different parts of the Country, they are still struggling to reconcile with the circumstance that made them completely evacuate their own land, their home. It all started with a much-orchestrated propaganda of special interest groups with alleged support from the erstwhile State Government, who without any fault of their own, ended up responsible for uprooting their inhabitants. This paper will attempt to look into the reasons for exodus of the Kashmiri Pandits- taking into account important individual narratives of victims and the literature associated with this subject. A sharp contrast shall be drawn between the then reaction and current reaction of religious minorities who so profusely reject current Government in the name of religious intolerance.



Human Security And State


Dr. Archana Singh


Assistant Professor, Maharaj Balwant Singh P.G. College, Gangapur , Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh


The alternative discourse that has emerged since the end of the Cold War focuses on human security. Whereas traditional international relations analysis of security focused on military threats to states, human security has expanded the discussion on vertical and horizontal axes. On the vertical one, it has extended the referent of security downward from states to individual human beings. Moreover, human security has extended the substance of security horizontally outwards from its focus on military affairs to embrace other issues, including criminality, the defence of human rights, economic threats, environmental threats and threats to health.16 There is substantial disagreement over how broad the category of threats covered under the concept of human security should be.17 Two general clusters have emerged. One embraces a narrow conception of human security, focusing on violent threats to the survival and integrity of the physical persons.18 The other takes a much broader and multi-dimensional view of threats to human beings, going well beyond violence.19 Proponents of this latter, broader view of human security point out that physical violence is far from the most significant threat to the survival and welfare of human beings. Fatalities from violence are dwarfed by those, for example, from disease and from famine. In another chapter in this volume, Liora Lazarus challenges the amalgamation of specific rights with reasonably clear meaning into an amorphous concept of the right to security. In her view, to move in that direction risks diluting the protections afforded to human beings. The proponents of a narrow view of human security offer an analogous argument: the broader the parameters of security and the fuzzier the boundaries, the less useful the concept of security is as an analytical and policy concept. In contrast, an understanding of security that emphasises freedom from the threat of physical violence avoids the diffusion of attention and of policy that is arguably implicit in broader conceptions. In addition, rolling concepts such as human development and basic rights into an overarching category of human security risks diverting attention and policy focus from those aspirations. Underlying this conceptual disagreement over the purview of human security is a competition for resources. The word ‘security’ carries a political and value content that privileges it in resource allocation. It is one thing to say that a policy is a matter of group interest or political preference and quite another to say that it is a matter of security. Appropriating the word, consequently, may enhance access to scarce resources. It is not surprising, therefore, that it is in the development community that the economic dimension of security is emphasised, in the health community that disease is highlighted, and so on. Human security concerns have been translated into numerous normative and legal developments. The acceleration of norm-setting regarding human security issues falls into three categories. In the first, we find a growing number of state treaty commitments regarding the security of civilians, both in conflict and in non-conflict situations. One example is the 1997 treaty banning the deployment, trade and production of anti-personnel landmines;20 another is the protocol on the recruitment of children into national armed forces;21 and a third is the earlier International Convention on Torture.22



Human Security And State


Twinkle Singhal


Student, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Noida, Uttar Pradesh


In terms of security rights, states have been very progressive and active and putting light on the inadequacies of humans and their related securities and insecurities. The meaning of security is being transformed but the fundamental purpose is to protect all the citizens. The present discourse reflects the change in global reality and the change in perspective goes along with it. It somewhere has caused us to rethink the principles of national sovereignty. With this, protection of people is the growing concern which has been reflected with this shift. Well in realism and contrast with gender, human (social animal) security is a substantial umbrella. Protecting national sovereignty and addressing the plight of violations of human rights has led to gain in momentum in recognition of the insecurity and security of humans and society.



Human Security Cries In Afghanistan: Role Of International Community


Aman Raj


Research Scholar, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand


Human Security is concerned with the safety of people and communities instead of the state. It is about the vulnerabilities of people and their communities. Firstly used in the Human Development Index Report in 1994 it recognises several dimensions of security such as Freedom from Want, Freedom from Fear and Freedom to live in Dignity. One such case is Afghanistan, which is suffering from a humanitarian emergency. With the collapse of the republic government and capturing of power by the Taliban, the situation of the Afghan people became precarious. The cries, suffering and ordeals of people remained unheard. This condition needs the significant contribution and support of the international community. Hence, the paper tries to analyse the nature of human insecurities in Afghanistan and the constructive role of the International community



Human Security From The Lens Of Human Rights: An Analysis On Right To Life


Dr. Rajshree Dutta


Assistant Professor, Fakir Mohan University, Odisha


In the global debate on the changing meaning of security, human security has been established as a distinctive new concept, which broadens the idea of security in exceptional ways. Human security is not about states and nations, but about individuals and people. Human rights are an inherent part of human security. Human rights have been described as the center of human security and as a normative framework for human security. Article 21 is at the heart of the Constitution of India. It states that Right to Life and Liberty is one of the fundamental rights given to every human being in the country and it has to be protected. In line with this constitutional vision, all-inclusive people-centric security is inextricably linked to the guarantee of human rights protection enshrined in the Constitution. India like many other countries in the world has adopted different measures to protect right to life and has enacted a wide range of special laws that give powers to security forces but the concern is neglect of accountability. Borrowing from the tenets of the global human security concept as well as relocating the idea of national security within the context of the Constitution and international human rights frameworks, can also lend greater ideological clarity and stronger human rights learning to shape a new understanding of security and right to life in context of India. Therefore, based on the secondary sources, this paper intends to highlight the constitutional and legislative responses by the Indian government for safeguarding right to life, human rights violations by state agents, and bring out the challenges and the way forward for guaranteeing right to life, as one of the important indicator of human security.



Human Security In Foreign Policy: The Indian Perspectives


Subarna Bhattacharya


Assistant Professor, Amity University, Kolkata, West Bengal


The end of Cold War in 1989 has changed the long termed notion of Security in the history of International Politics. Traditional military ways of making and sustaining peace and managing conflicts were greatly changed to Non-Traditional Security measures associated with various diplomatic channels. Post Soviet Union, the direction of the Indian Foreign Policy has also taken an obvious shift. Around the same time, due to the mounting economic burden, India has also introduced the Economic Liberalization Policy in early 1990s to its Union Budget. The mention of ‘Human Security’ in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report in 1994 brought one new dimension to the concept of Non-Traditional Security. Looking at this definition of the Human Security by UNDP, one can relate it to the very basis of India’s relation with the world since independence, be it Panchsheel or declared policy of ‘no first strike’ of nuclear weapons. In this article, we will try to find out how the essence of Human Security remained at core with the changing dynamics of Indian Foreign Policy in recent years focusing on the South Asian region.



Human Security In The Post Covid-19 World


Dr. Mohd Younes Bhat


Assistant Professor, Government Degree College Kulgam-University of Kashmir, Kashmir


The post Covid-19 world has been a world of fragility and vulnerability of the human conditions all across the world. However, its greater fallout has been on the poor people and poorer countries. The world has seen global medical emergency, greater economic stagnation, inequality, food and medicine shortage, violences on women, migrants and refugees. The pandemic has not been limited to socio-economic sphere, it changed the geo-political geo-economic landscape of the global politics. The post Covid-19 world is reflecting growing autocracies, atomism, unilateralism and has reversed the global cooperation and multilateralism. Hence, the human security has become more vulnerable during the Covid-19 pandemic. What will the world look like after COVID-19? Many of the problems we will face in the next decade will simply be more extreme versions of those that we already confront today. This paper will try to unfold these all issues and would seek to analyse the emerging order of human securities in the Post Covid-19 pandemic. The paper will be based on analytical study.



Human Security In View Of Climate Change: Sustaining Environmental Concerns


Dr. Kamlesh Pritwani


Senior Faculty, Shri Ratanlal Kanwarlal Patni Government P.G. College, Kishangarh, Rajasthan


The issues of human security and conflict in relation to climate change have progressed to a place where they represent a recognized and important component in the climate change conversation and are being addressed in a diverse range of fora through meetings, reports and changes in policy. Climate change poses an immediate threat to national security, calling on the military to incorporate climate change into broader strategic thinking about high-risk regions. Climate change is referred to as a “threat multiplier” due to its potential to aggravate number of the current challenges faced in some fields, like infectious disease, terrorism and conflict over scarce resources. It can contribute to instability, lead to displacement and migration, worsen existing conflicts and threaten global security. Climate change threatens the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. Natural disasters, environmental degradation and extreme weather patterns interrupt harvests, deplete fisheries, erode livelihoods and spur infectious diseases. Demographic trends, migration and rapid urbanization converge with climate change, raising the stakes for those most vulnerable. Climate change can contribute to food insecurity and increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, which can lead to massive displacement and migration and conflict over food, water and arable land and border disputes. This ultimately reflects a lack of security in the daily lives of people. As climate change impacts worsen and temperatures rise, the threats to security have the potential to become more projecting. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol comprise no reference to human security. Besides, when discussions on security and climate change at global level first took place almost ten years ago when the UN Security Council addressed the impacts of climate change on peace and security, the issue was still considered a “future” concern. Climate change also impacts on the infrastructure and territorial integrity of States, and, as such, is expected to influence national security policies. Through supporting community actions, the human security approach aims to reduce disaster risks, make sustainable use of environmental resources and foster peaceful, prosperous societies. Human security programmes have advanced in-depth analysis of the local context to understand the multidimensional consequences of climate change and its impact on the severity and distribution of risks and vulnerabilities. Programmes promote inclusive responses that address the social, economic and environmental impacts, help tailor disaster mitigation strategies to local capacities and resources and ensure local engagement in resilience-building efforts.



Human Security, Governance And Disaster Risk Preparedness Of Delhi Metro During Fire Hazard: A Case Study Of Central Secretariat Metro Station, New Delhi


Dr. Shweta Rani


Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, New Delhi


Urban centers all over the world are known for their effective transport network that supports a huge population, stimulating the ease of movement of people and services. Such transport networks have successfully connected many parts of the city to one another. Delhi is one of the fastest growing urban centers in India, with a huge population base, and offering some of the best facilities to its people in terms of infrastructure i.e., transport in the form of transit system. In the last decade the people of Delhi witnessed the emergence of one of the world’s most extensive Urban Rapid Transit Systems, in the form of the Delhi Metro. In Delhi Metro with innumerable headcounts per day, the chances of a potential disaster or precisely a hazard are more than an actual disaster itself. Looking at the present situation of overcrowding in metro, human security is a major concern and the vulnerability of metro to a hazard cannot be ignored. A fire outbreak is one such disaster where its sudden outbreak might prove to be fatal and damage property permanently if not controlled in time. It can become more threatening at heavily crowded areas like the interchange metro station of Central Secretariat lying on the yellow line and connecting it with the Violet line. A fire outbreak can be referred to as a hazard if it is having the potential to cause large scale destruction, it becomes a disaster when the magnitude of this potential increases to a great extent along with the high intensity of damage and destruction. In light of preceding understanding, the present study tends to highlight the state of human security and associated fire management and control at metro stations simultaneously focusing on the levels of awareness among the commuters regarding the same. The study aims to assess the communication between the DMRC and the masses, highlighting how well are the masses able to decipher the guidelines issued by the DMRC, ensuring their security. The study is based on both primary and secondary data sources collected from various sources using stratified purposive sampling and aided by online survey and telephonic interviews using social media platforms. The result shows wide regional and spatial disparities in the awareness level among the commuters and DMRC staff members regarding the management and control of fire hazards. Also, people were not aware of the evacuation plans that had been put up at various points all throughout the metro station due to lack of effective communication between the masses and the DMRC. The paper aims to provide some innovative and meaningful suggestions like installation of big screens where the duration of the advertisement should coincide with the arrival time of next metro, issuing disaster management alerts at frequent intervals, display of a 3-D evacuation plan models, regular mock drills and conduct of workshops etc. The finding suggests that proper decision-making to these basic infrastructures can minimize human losses and can go a long way in maintaining a mutual trust between DMRC and their riders, thus ensuring human sustainability and maintaining human security.



Human Security: Role And Impact Of School Education And Governance

Ravinder Kumar

Assistant Professor, Govt College for Girls, Mohana, Sonipat, Haryana

Human security is the biggest concern worldwide. People, scholars and scientists all over the globe critically analysing the issues and factors which are and may be a threat to human security. Enumerating those issues and factors like climate change, terrorism, wars, pandemic, poverty and ignorance, autocracy and violation of human rights, civil wars and riots, emergence of new diseases, natural extremes, extremist thinking and superstitions, communal hatred, racism and casteist thinking, etc are the major input from where human insecurity takes root and then breeds. Though some of them are inevitable and natural, yet the destruction/damage could be controlled utilizing better education and governance. However, many factors of human insecurity are anthropogenic and could lead to catastrophic destruction, history had scores of examples in terms of war, terrorism, communal riots, civil wars, and so on. Such outcome of gross human injustice originates from ignorance and/or bad governance, which subsequently led to many dangerous mental make up a man/woman can have and creates human beings as the greatest threat to their fellow human beings. Not just philosophically but also naturally, security of life is regarded as the chief concern by the philosophers since ages; from the advent of civilization, and even pre-civilization, protection of self has been the main objective which the human being conceived. Philosophers like Aristotle described two basic instincts of individual, self-defense and sexual desire; similarly John Locke in his natural rights theory included Right to life (among three) as the paramount one. However, human security is an umbrella term encompasses protection of people and communities, not just securing the life of one person. This paper is an attempt to decipher the philosophical and scientific bases of human security and how the ignorance, bad governance, sense of greed and fear, etc led to human insecurity. The paper, in detail, discuss and critically analyse the role and impact of school education and governance in achieving human security, its various dimensions (social, economic, political and cultural) through examples. There exist a great consensus among philosophers, scientists, leaders and organisations that without proper education (disappear ignorance, broad vision and farsightedness, wisdom, etc) and governance model implementation (enabling environment to an individual for development and removing the obstacles) human security can't be achieved.

Human Trafficking And Organized Crime In India: A Case Of Intra-State Challenges In South Asia

Dipankar Dey

Research Scholar, Central University of Jharkhand, Jharkhand

Human trafficking is one of the main prominent challenges towards the State mechanism throughout the globe. Today India’s has also faced the greatest threats from human trafficking and its associated organized crime. Eventually, human trafficking has caused to accomplish human right violence, increase bonded labour, prostitution, presence insecurity in society and etc. among which women and children are affected more globally and particularly, India has been the main destination or source for human trafficking and involving related organized crime. In order to obtain, It would more tremendous visible within the transit of Intra - State human trafficking. Now the question is remains the how India will be eliminating and combating all forms of human trafficking activities in every corner of the societies? According to the Stanford University report, India’s 90 percent human trafficking has taken place at the domestic level. Whereas, Government of India data showed that in 2016 total number of 8132 (eight thousand one hundred thirty-two) cases were reported under the human trafficking activities across India whereas, along West Bengal has reported 3579 cases. In addition, the Government of India has been setting up 332 Anti-Human trafficking units across the states for preventing and combating human trafficking and related organized crime. Indeed, whether the Government proposes to bring radical change in administrative mechanism to effectively deal with such crimes along with other measures to check incidents of human trafficking and forced labour in the country. The paper will analyze the root causes of human trafficking and its subsequent organized crime such as bonded labour, sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, forced marriage and so on



Impact Of Covid 19 On Migrant Workers In Jammu And Kashmir


Dr. Anjum Ara Shamim


Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Dr. Sanjeda Warsi


Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Around four lakh migrant labourers show up in the Valley every year and work in farms, small scale industries, factories, brick kilns, saloons and construction companies. Due to spread of pandemic government decided to put some measures in place to control the spread. As a measure, the administration has already placed strict restrictions on the movement of people while sealing all borders and air traffic and has advised people not to move from their homes unnecessarily. As the harvesting season, which begins in September and lasts till November end, is at its peak, the mass exodus of the migrant labourers from the Valley could significantly hit the agriculture related activities In the wake of growing COVID-19 cases in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, many migrant workers who are stuck in the region were making desperate appeals to the government for food and transportation. This paper is an attempt to understand conditions of migrant workers during Covid -19



Impact Of Covid 19 Pandemic On Human Security And Education: An Empirical Study


Ritika Verma


Student, Department Of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab


COVID-19 pandemic affected the life of every person whether rich or poor, irrespective of class or caste, teacher or student, men or women. It affected the lives physically as well as socially through socio-economic disparities. The pandemic affected not only teaching and learning but the capacity to think, giving thought on logics, explorations, innovation, etc. of the young minds. Human security is basically a fusion of development and security in the community. As per the Census 2011, about 34.33% of the Indian population consists of youth, and in the current situation, this percentage is supposed to increase. COVID-19 has declined the level of scientific temperament of the youth and the society at large. The country needs people with the capacity to think independently, logically and critically and also to create knowledge for increasing the social security as a whole. This paper aims to know understand that how the pandemic is impacting the social security of the human being as well as the scientific temperament of the young population. It further attempts to know what can be the solutions to the problems faced by them during the pandemic scenario. The results of the present study have very significant value in the field of Human Security viz. Health insecurity, Educational insecurity, Economic Disruptions, Human Development and Gender Issues during the Pandemic. The findings of the study can bring about revolutionary changes from the perspective of the human security for the young adults and the society at large



Impact Of Covid-19 On Migrant Workers


Dr. Ramfhoul Jat


Assistant Professor, Government College, Dausa, Rajasthan


The socio-economic crisis induced by Covid-19 in the worldwide countries could be long, deep, and pervasive, especially for the migrant workers. Migrant workers in India tend to live and work in cities in crowded conditions that do not permit social distancing, putting them at an increased risk of various diseases. Migrant workers face challenges accessing health care even in normal circumstances due to lack of health insurance, cost, administrative hurdles, lack of public health infrastructure, and lack of access to medical facilities. `India was one of the leading countries to implement the initial lockdown The sudden lockdown due to Covid placed the migrant workers in India at critical situation on the roads, having lost jobs and being left without income, food, and accommodation. They   travelled back home on foot only to be shuttled into shelters and relief camps hastily cobbled up as a last-minute response to the migrant crisis. This article analyses the specific ways in which Indian migrant workers have been affected by the pandemic and examines the response of the government and its impact in mitigating and addressing the crisis.



Impact Of Food Security On Human Security And Sustainable Governance


Arpita Singh


Research Scholar, Centre for Development Studies, University of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh


The paper explores the relationship between food and human security in context of sustainable governance in India and also the impact on human security. According to UN General Assembly (66/290), that human security means securing survival of an individual and strengthen their individuality by empowering livelihood; whereas food security means that everyone has equal access of sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times for an active and healthy life as define by FAO. Though, food is a basic human right and also categorized as one of the basic aspects of human security and development in the report of human development. This paper reflects the impact of food security in terms of an individual security & sustainable development. Many international & national organizations are working for human welfare, still there has been some sorts of gap exists viz; due to population explosion, poverty and unemployment everyone doesn’t get better quality of food and livelihood. The rate of stunting, malnutrition and hunger has been also increased after covid19 pandemic. Consequently, for decimating food insecurity and poverty government must have to introduce sustainable, & ethical policies based on sustainable & accountable approach.



Impact Of Online Teaching Among Women Teachers And Parents During Coronavirus Pandemic In Madurai


P Lalitha


Research Scholar, The American College, Tamil Nadu


Prior to the coronavirus pandemic, teachers and parents of children were affected in their quality of life due to online education. This research paper aims to evaluate the online teaching impact of covid-19 among women teachers and parents of children who lives in Madurai. The E- survey was conducted from 1st December 2021 to 31st January 2022 to obtain their information. The mailed questionnaire was sent to the women teachers and parents via Google form through WhatsApp and E-mail. A sample of 60 respondents was provided with full information regarding this research paper. The percentage and tabulation methods were used to analyse the research objectives. In the pandemic period, 75% of parents of children have affected their various walks of daily life due to online class supervision. 80% of women teachers have been facing the problem of increased workload.



Increasing Marital Age Of Marriage For Girls: A Step Towards Women Empowerment"


Kiran Chauhan


Assistant Professor, Bhupal Nobles University, Udaipur, Rajasthan


Increasing marital age of marriage for girls: A step towards Women empowerment" The Union cabinet took the decision to raise the legal age of marriage for women from 18-21 year. The government is bringing the age of marriage for both men & women equally as per Article 14 of the Indian Constitution which provides right to equalotywithout any discrimination. The recently released National Family Health Survey ( NFHS) revealed that child marriage has come down marginally from 27% to 23% in 2020. This Article discuss about the legal provisions regarding marriage & also its role in women empowerment.



Independent Directors: A Comparative Study Of India And Australia


Pooja Shukla and Dr. Sanjiv Chaturvedi


Research Scholar, Ranchi University, Jharkhand


Corporate sector plays very important role in the sustainable growth and development of any economy. Jurisdictions in which corporate are subjected to good governance practices are more prosperous as compared to those having weaker governance. Board of director’s independence is considered as the corner stone of corporate governance in any country. Although the concept of Independent director emerged in the US as a voluntary measure which was made compulsory there following the management and shareholders agency theory problems commonly referred as the outsider’s model problems. The giant corporate failures occurring across the various jurisdictions compelled the regulators across the globe to make compulsory provision regarding the Independent Directors irrespective of the model of corporate governance they were following. Following the initiative taken by the US and UK various other countries also adopted the provision of overhauling and revamping the board structure for ensuring better governance by appointing Independent directors. The focus of the present paper is on study of the regulatory provisions related to the office of the independent director of the two countries i.e. India and Australia belonging to the Asia pacific region.



India Requisite To Strengthen Its National Security Emphasizing On Police And Prison Reforms To Carb The Growing Security Threats From Internal And External Forces


Dr Sumanta Bhattacharya


Research Scholar, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology & The National Academy of Legal Studies and Research, West Bengal


National security is of utmost importance to protect the integrity and unity of a country. India faces threats from both external and internal forces. With liberalization and globalization, the pattern of crimes has also changed. With the advancement in technology, cybercrimes, and cyber terrorism is taking a dynamic shape in our society. Cyberwarfare is the biggest threat of the 21st century which can collapse the whole economy of a country without the use of violence. Today, developed countries and developing countries are much considered the rising organized crimes and terrorists. Border management and maritime security are strengthening their forces to tackle this threat, water wars are rising and these are easy routes for a terrorist to enter a nation and carry out illicit crimes. For internal and external security, first, we need to strengthen our police forces, there has been hardly any reform in India in the police sector since independence, as for normal citizens police are the first people whom the society will approach. We need to upgrade the system, We need to isolate police regulation of investigation, law management by appointing multiple police officials in a different sector to elucidate good governance, employ women officials to provide comfortable investigation facilities for female gender We need to provide sufficient manpower to provide sufficient balance in safety and security management in disturb areas., introduce special education certification in the field of disaster management, cyber security, traffic management from different International and national universities at a minimum rate. We also need to improve the conditions of our prison system and deploy more security as today prisons are becoming a target to carry out organized crimes and terrorism has support through which they can easily access the Internet. We need to maintain better coordination with the police department for prison management and security to maintain national security and protect our nation from terrorism and increasing crime



India’s Quest For Self-Reliance In The Defence Sector: The Dilemma Of Defence Or Development


Honey Raj


Research Scholar, Central University of Jharkhand, Jharkhand


Defence and Development have remained companions to each other in India’s National Security discourse and are largely perceived within the “guns vs butter debate. The general notion is that the defence expenditure is indispensable for maintaining national security, integrity, peace, harmony, etc. India is not an exception to this ideology. To main a secure stable and peaceful environment, defence expenditure is mandatory. In India planned development has been going on for several decades now. During this period various sectors of the economy have witnessed a record level of development. Despite all this development, India’s population growth has not slowed down. The rise in population poses a major challenge to economic growth initially further hindering human development. Therefore, Human Resource Development is the only pragmatic approach to tackle the problem of population and development in India. The assessment of the economic and social effects of military expenditure has been a debatable issue for decades. Defence spending has a positive impact on economic growth through its impact on aggregate demand, internal and external security-enhancing investment and employment opportunity in an economy, and an adverse impact on economic growth mainly through its crowding-out effects and balance of payment issues. Investment in defence also creates job opportunities and hence, increases purchasing power and demand for goods and services and boost economic growth. Thus, the debate of gun vs butter or defence vs development is a matter of perception and both the expenditure are indispensable and cannot be neglected.



India's National Security Policy And Human Security


Neeraj Singh Manhas


Research Scholar, Sardar Patel University, Gujarat


In a rapidly integrating and globalising world, as well as an increasingly interdependent and multipolar international system, the security discourse's predominant military-strategic orientation came to be viewed as excessively narrow and insufficient. As a result, individuals became the primary locus of security. Freedom from desire and fear developed into the most effective defences against insecurity. Analysing threats holistically and interdisciplinary should aid in identifying critical threats and formulating the appropriate course of action. The threats confronting India demonstrate the traditional security concept's inability to address them. In this regard, force is not the most effective tool for dealing with the myriad threats; rather, human development and humane governance are the preferred instruments of security. A comprehensive human security approach is required in India's national security calculus and policymaking. In other words, a comprehensive security policy that incorporates the human security paradigm is required. The paper demonstrates the inadequacy of India's traditional security approach and advocates for the adoption of the concept of human security.



Interdisciplinary Approach In A Study Of Education Governance And Social Theory


Renuka Shyam Narain


Research Scholar, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi


Governance means form the system through which an organisation is controlled and regulated, and decision-making process take place by undertaking all the aspects of the decision making like compliance, Ethics, administration, society and risk management. Education Governance in the decision-making process regarding the education system and changes in the education system with the requirements in the economy. It includes the organisations and processes which manage the education systems and would allocate responsibilities and definite roles in determining the education policies and programs. Countries carry out differently their education governance as per their policies and requirements in the country. Social theory means the theory that explains the behaviours and actions of society under the political, sociological, and philosophical effects. The reaction of society as a whole is due to the change or introduction of the new policy in the economy. An interdisciplinary approach or study means the combination of two or more academic disciplines or including all the disciplines into one activity. In the 21century, the study of education governance is an important area of research with the change in education systems with the effect of the political, economic, and social developments nationally and globally. In this article, we would analyse this important issue through theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches by studying the education governance or changes in the education with the change in the time and situation in different countries. Role of the education governance in the country and impact of social theory with the variations in the education policies. The impact of digitalisation in the education governance in the country. With that, I have also considered the recommendation based on the research and finding through a combination of two academic disciplines in the research.



Intruding 'Privacy' In The 21St Century: An Analysis


Dr. Amrita Dey


Assistant Professor, Political Science, Amity University Kolkata


Scholars have been discussing and debating on traditional and unconventional security threats since the end of the Cold War. While conventional security threats are primarily state-centric, the unconventional/asymmetric threats cropped up from non-state actors of different kinds. In the 21st century these non-state centric issues have expanded to encompass privacy issues in our diurnal lives—a ‘mistrust’, ‘an uncanny’ fear of being watched and noticed by all those whom we go for ‘assistance’. These kind of intrusions are visible both in our physical and virtual interactions. My paper on ‘intruding Privacy’ in the 21st century examines these plethora of in(security) issues at the individual and state level. It attempts to study the ‘myths’ and reality’ of such human insecurity and the mechanisms society can generate to create awareness of them. The paper will combine experiences from personal lives as well as secondary sources of information from variegated sources.’.







Local Governance In Ancient India


Madhu Kumawat


Assistant Professor, Shri Ratanlal Kanwarlal Patni Government P.G. College, Kishangarh, Rajasthan


Local Governance During the ancient Hindu period, the villages enjoyed autonomy and were governed by the panchayats which exercised administrative and judicial powers. These village bodies received a setback under the Muslim rule and almost disappeared in their old form under the British, confining their authority only to the social life of the village community. The annexation of territory and over centralization of administration during the early British period brought about total extinction of traditional institutions of local self-government in India. Since earliest times, the village has been the pivot of administration in India. Its importance was naturally very great in an age when communication were slow and industrialisation unknown. Town played a relatively unimportant part in ancient Indian life, the Vedic hymns frequently prey for the prosperity of village, but rarely for that of towns and cities. While describing the prosperity of a kingdom, Jatakas proudly give the large number of prosperous villages included in it, but are altogether oblivious to the existence of towns and cities that may flourished in it. In the Vedic age, states were small and this circumstance further enhanced the importance of the village. In later times, even when kingdoms became large, there was no change in the situation, because the village was the natural pivot of administration in a rural society. In modern times, governors often convene a conference of collectors to discuss important question of administrative policy ; in ancient times kings like Bimbisara used to convene a meeting of village headmen for similar purpose. There is no doubt that village were the real centres of social life and important units in the country's economy. They sustained the edifice of national culture, prosperity and administration. The object of this paper is to search of local Governance in Ancient India



Maoist Insurgency And Human Security In India And Nepal


Suvarna Bhaurao Bagul


Research Scholar, Mumbai University, Maharashtra


Human security is all about freedom from threat and insecurity. One of the non traditional kind of threat to human security is from external actors like terrorist organisation etc. The paper analysises the threat to human security from indegenously developed Naxalites movement for India and growth of Maoist led politics in Nepal. There are also evidences of significant connection between moists groups in both the countries leading to spillover effects.The paper critically analyses origin, growth, spread of Maoist as well as henious crime committed against humanity. The paper also mentioned about efforts of both countries in containing maoist through various strategies. The paper concludes that democratic development is the only remedy for all kinds of threat to human security.




Mapping The Changes In The Governance Of The Bjp Led Coalition Government In Manipur


Naorem Malemsanba Meetei


Assistant Professor, Ghanapriya Women's College, Dhanamanjuri University, Imphal, Manipur


Manipur is one of the northeast states of India inhabited mainly by different indigenous (yelhoumee) communities namely the Meitei/Meetei, Meitei-Pangal, Nagas and Kukis since eternity. After the coming of the BJP led coalition government in the state of Manipur in 2017, there have been substantial changes in the state’s polity, economy, socio-culture and infrastructure. In this context, some of the basic questions that need to be studied are given as: What are the changes that the BJP led government has brought about in the polity of the state? Are there any changes in the health infrastructure of the state in the last five years? Is the state peaceful nowadays? What does the popular slogan ‘Go to Hills’ of the government mean for the hill and valley people? To explore the above-mentioned queries is the crux of the paper.



Impact Of Pandemic And Lockdowns On Women


Dr. Anjum Ara Shamim


Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Dr. Sanjeda Warsi


Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir, Kashmir


Covid-19 has resulted in certain structural changes that made women more vulnerable and marginalised. This pandemic has increased marginalisation of an already marginalised section of the society. In Kashmir, a society affected by conflict , women are facing various problems and at the same time using their agency to deal with the challenges posed by current pandemic. The main objective of the present paper is to understand the nature of the suffering of Kashmiri women and impact of different lockdowns on their lives. This paper is also an attempt to understand disproportionate impact of the Covid-19 lockdown clubbed with armed conflict on women, whether it is direct crimes committed against women or indirect impact of governmental policies and decisions taken to deal with this natural calamity. To place these ideas into context and to understand lived experiences of Kashmiri women, Kashmiri society has been taken as a case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to conduct this study. To understand the impact of lockdown a questionnaire has been used clubbed with ethnographic open ended interviews of the women randomly selected among medical staff and patients who could not avoid getting out of their houses even in strict lockdowns.



Normalisation Of Terrorism And State Level Sabotage Of Human Security: An Analysis On Taliban And Afghanistan


Cyriac S Pampackal


Assistant Professor, Mar Athanasius College (Autonomous) Kothamangalam, Kerala


The fall of the democratically elected Afghanistan government and the disastrous failure of state machineries following the US withdrawal has left the people of Afghanistan in peril under the new Taliban led regime. The perilous status of human security in Afghanistan was primarily evident from the desperate efforts to flee from the country made by a significant number of Afghan people during the US withdrawal. The international acceptance of the Taliban as the new governing authority of Afghanistan coupled with the internal dictations made by the Taliban regime has further curbed the rights and freedom of Afghan people. This paper will be looking into the impacts of the normalised legitimisation of the terrorist regime on the human security aspects of Afghanistan.



Politicisation Of Education: A Neo-Governance Approach Degrading Education.


Aanchal Seth


Student, Passed out from Punjab University 2020, Punjab


The pandemic has created a chaos in education system. From decrease in quality of education to rate of increase in dropout rate to female education be marginalised and the broke mid-day scheme is one discourse. Another discourse being Education being politicised in every zone may it be bringing in part ideologies into the course work of students or shaping of higher education into reservation-based politics or we can say new emergence of ‘Mandal system’ but in zones of education. This new approach of government in the modern world still filled with orthodox beliefs can be named as neo-governance. The difference in approach from era of UPA to NDA will brought in highlights how the politicisation of education is degrading the value of knowledge in our nation.



Privacy-Preserved Data Publishing: Applications, Opportunities And Challenges


Thomas Abraham


Research Scholar, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala


We know that privacy is an important thing in this era. The privacy-preserved data publishing has become much more important in these recent years because of the increasing ability to store and publish personal data about users, and the increasing sophistication of data publishing algorithms and techniques to leverage this information. In this paper, we are going to discuss and study about different transformation methods and techniques that are associated with privacy, that is randomization, k-anonymity, l-diversity and also handles like how perturbed data can be used in conjunction with publishing approaches. Privacy preservation facing many challenges in this era mainly due to privacy violations. In this paper we will discuss it along with some future challenges and opportunities.



Property Rights For Hindu Women: An Insight Into Hindu Succession Amendment Act And Issue Of Women Security


Dr. Kirat Grewal

Associate Professor, University School of Legal Studies, Chandigarh University


Women rights in India can be better understood and appreciated in light of the past. The present paper speculates the property rights of Hindu women in Ancient Period to critically appreciate the changes that have gradually evolved in context of Hindu Succession. The present paper makes a modest attempt to study the transitional shift in terms of property rights for Hindu women as it existed in ancient times and as they hold today; how far quantum and quality of these rights has improved in light of Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005) and identify grey areas for improvement. The said amendment in 2005 took the progressive step of making daughters coparceners at par with sons so that they receive an equal birthright to a share in the natal family’s ancestral property, i.e., parents’ property.  However, the actual materialization of property rights for women is yet to occur in its true spirit. The issue of property rights is exceedingly complex because the distribution of property rights is governed largely by customary law, patriarchal ideologies, in the form of social and cultural barriers. Women must be provided with more awareness about their rights to property and should have access to better legal aid. The legal processes for realizing women’s claims must also be reworked so as to remove any psychological and social barriers in the path of women who want to approach the law.



Protection Of Human Rights & Good Governance: Role Of The Indian State In Providing Public Services


Soumalya Ghosh


Assistant Professor, Sewnarayan Rameswar Fatepuria College, West Bengal


Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 has codified a long list of Rights which is deemed essential for the survival of human beings in any civilized country. Countries which have ratified this declaration have considered it as an objective set of standards by which their performance can be analyzed. It requires an appropriate legal framework with democratically structured institutions along with necessary legal, political and administrative process to actualize demands of population. Here lies the mutual relationship between human rights and good governance. They are mutually supportive of each other. If human rights stand for having a conducive and enabling environment it is through good governance that such environment can be protected. Good governance which generally stands for enjoyment of authority through a transparent and accountable manner with its emphasis on expanding the area for public participation in formal decision making process or informal discussions regarding public policies. This paper starts with a general focus on various generations of rights. After that emphasis will be given on role of Indian state through its governance in ensuring delivery a variety of services to its citizens. Finally based on available primary and secondary data, this paper will try to analyze how far in the fields of education, health and social welfare services states are able to ensure protection and promotion of Human Rights for the poorest and most marginalized through its existing governance system.



Public Health And Governance In India


Raghu Raj Singodia


Assistant Professor, Seth Net Ram Magh Raj Tibrewala, Govermment Girls College, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan


This paper explores the health policy and governance in India. Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals. A disease imbalance in body requires systematic and effective solution. Health providers need to adopt humanistic consideration as well.The role of the government in influencing population health is not limited within the health sector but also by various sectors outside the health systems. Health system strengthening, human resource development and capacity building and regulation in public health are important areas within the health sector.



Recognition Of Tribal Peoples’ Right And Governance: A Study Of Jharkhand (India)


Mr. Rakesh Kumar


Research Scholar, Central University of Jharkhand, Brambe, Ranchi, Jharkhand


Present research paper is primarily based on secondary sources and qualitative methods for studying recognition of Tribal peoples’ rights and governance over traditional resources of Jharkhand. Tribal peoples of this land have been inhabited on those areas since time immemorial where all the valuable minerals, ores and natural resources are mostly located have recognized as schedules areas as per the specific constitutional provisions. The different modes of Tribal economy among the 32 Tribal communities of this land have been found during colonial and also after independence, primarily based on forest and agriculture land, which have still been prevailed with some changes in them to the present scenarios in spite of modernity, industrialization, deforestation and introducing other developing programs in those areas. The government of India has also recognized their right and governance over their traditional resources which are the constitute parts of their society and culture. In the present study, the researcher will focus in detailed on the above mentioned matters in the context of traditional rights and constitutional provisions under the proposed title of this research paper.



Rethinking The Human Security Approach For Responding To Covid In India


Dr. Pratham Prakash Parekh